IMPORTANCE UV radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary environmental risk factor for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). OBJECTIVE To measure changes in sun behavior from the first until the third summer after the diagnosis of CMM using matched controls as a reference. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three-year follow-up, observational, case-control study performed from May 7 to September 22, 2009, April 17 to September 15, 2010, and May 6 to July 31, 2011, at a university hospital in Denmark of 21 patients with CMM and 21 controls matched to patients by sex, age, occupation, and constitutive skin type participated in the study. Exposure to UVR was assessed the first and second summers (n=20) and the first and third summers (n=22) after diagnosis. Data from 40 participants were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Exposure to UVR was assessed by personal electronic UVR dosimeters that measured time-related UVR in standard erythema dose (SED) and corresponding sun diaries (mean, 74 days per participant each participation year). RESULTS Patients' daily UVR dose and UVR dose in connection with various behaviors increased during follow-up (quantified as an increase in daily UVR dose each year; all days: mean, 0.3 SED; 95% CI, 0.05-0.5 SED; days with body exposure: mean, 0.6 SED; 95% CI, 0.07-1.2 SED; holidays: mean, 1.2 SED; 95% CI, 0.3-2.1 SED; days abroad: 1.9 SED; 95% CI, 0.4-3.4 SED; and holidays with body exposure: mean, 2.3 SED; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4 SED). After the second year of follow-up, patients' UVR dose was higher than that of controls, who maintained a stable UVR dose. No difference was found between groups in the number of days with body exposure or the number of days using sunscreen in the second and third years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our findings suggest that patients with CMM do not maintain a cautious sun behavior in connection with an increase in UVR exposure, especially on days with body exposure, when abroad, and on holidays.
We have investigated the genetic involvement of the CD4 and the LAG3 genes, two appealing candidates for MS due to their suggested role in MS pathology. We genotyped a Swedish case-control material consisting of 920 MS patients and 778 controls in an initial study of CD4, three SNPs showed a significant association with MS. An independent material consisting of 1720 Nordic MS patients and 1416 controls were used for confirmation of associated markers in CD4 and to do a confirmative study of the LAG3 gene from previous findings. The result, including a total of 2640 MS patients and 2194 controls shows no significant association with CD4 and LAG3 and MS. We conclude that these genes are of minor importance in regard of genetic predisposition to the MS.
Investigation of coaffected sib pairs is one method to determine the genetic influence on the clinical presentation of many complex diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Investigation of the clinical concordance in coaffected sib pairs may be a prerequisite to identify genes that modify the clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible genetic influence on selected demographic and clinical variables among familial Scandinavian MS cases.
We identified 136 Caucasian Scandinavian families with MS coaffected sib pairs from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Cohen's kappa coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient were used to assess concordances in sib pairs. Furthermore, clinical features and HLA-DR2 carrier status were compared among the probands of sib pairs.
We found significant concordance of the disease course (kappa = 0.28, P
We report the first two genome-wide screens for linkage disequilibrium between putative multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility genes and genetic markers performed in the genetically homogenous Scandinavian population, using 6000 microsatellite markers and DNA pools of approximately 200 MS cases and 200 controls in each screen. Usable data were achieved from the same 3331 markers in both screens. Nine markers from eight genomic regions (1p33, 3q13, 6p21, 6q14, 7p22, 9p21, 9q21 and Xq22) were identified as potentially associated with MS in both screens.