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Unemployment, re-employment and the use of primary health care services.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219763
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1993 Dec;11(4):228-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
P. Virtanen
Author Affiliation
University of Tampere, Department of Public Health, Finland.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 1993 Dec;11(4):228-33
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Employment - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Family Practice
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Services Research
Humans
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Primary Health Care - utilization
Social Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence
Unemployment
Abstract
To examine the association between re-employment and the use of primary health care services.
A cohort study of employed teenagers and a 'natural experiment' among adult long-term unemployed with an intervention group of re-employed, a control group of not re-employed, and a matched control group of permanently employed.
An industrial town (pop. 25,000) in southwestern Finland.
84 teenage and 143 adult long-term unemployed and 82 permanently employed individuals.
Frequency of primary health care visits.
Primary health care visits increased during re-employment among both teenage and adult re-employed (n = 82), but not in a control group of 61 long-term unemployed who were not employed under the re-employment scheme. A comparison with persons in regular wage employment indicated that visits increased from a low to a normal level.
To explain the results, reference is made to the need for sickness absence certificates and to epidemiological factors. The findings also raise serious questions with regard to the ability of the health care system to reach, let alone help, unemployed citizens.
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Prim Health Care. 1993 Dec;11(4):225-78146504
PubMed ID
8146505 View in PubMed
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Low-vision aids in age-related macular degeneration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8083
Source
Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1993 Jun;4(3):33-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1993
Author
P. Virtanen
L. Laatikainen
Author Affiliation
Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1993 Jun;4(3):33-5
Date
Jun-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Eyeglasses
Humans
Lenses, Intraocular
Macular Degeneration - rehabilitation
Reading
Television - economics
Vision, Low - complications - therapy
Abstract
In spite of the many patients with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration, the year's publications on their rehabilitation are few. The most common complaint of these patients is their inability to read. For this purpose, simple optical devices, eg, overcorrection in reading glasses, hand-held or stand magnifiers, are usually best. With closed-circuit television systems, reading speed may be faster and reading time may be longer but these systems are still too expensive for most users. Results on bifocal intraocular lenses used as a Galilean telescopic system are still unconfirmed. New ideas for many technical devices suitable also for elderly patients have been presented.
PubMed ID
10146211 View in PubMed
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Primary success with low vision aids in age-related macular degeneration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8240
Source
Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1991 Aug;69(4):484-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1991
Author
P. Virtanen
L. Laatikainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1991 Aug;69(4):484-90
Date
Aug-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Macular Degeneration - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Reading
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensory Aids
Treatment Outcome
Vision, Binocular
Vision, Low - therapy
Visual acuity
Abstract
The benefit obtained from various low vision aids (LVAs) was studied in 65 consecutive patients with atrophic (70.3%) or disciform (29.7%) age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). 13.8% were able to read newsprint with age-related reading correction under proper lighting conditions. The primary success achieved with LVAs was good, 91.4% of patients being able to read newsprint. In most cases a simple magnifier (52.3%), high-powered reading glasses (10.8%) or Fonda's glasses (12.8%) were sufficient. The magnification preferred was 5x or less in 25.6% and greater than 5x to 9x in 48.8%. Patients with disciform degeneration required higher magnification than those with atrophic degeneration. It is concluded that most patients with ARMD found low vision aids useful for reading purposes and that a simple optical device was sufficient to achieve reading vision.
PubMed ID
1750317 View in PubMed
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Pain in scleral pocket incision cataract surgery using topical and peribulbar anesthesia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50956
Source
J Cataract Refract Surg. 1998 Dec;24(12):1609-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
P. Virtanen
T. Huha
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
Source
J Cataract Refract Surg. 1998 Dec;24(12):1609-13
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Topical
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anesthesia, Local - methods
Anesthetics, Combined
Anesthetics, Local - administration & dosage
Bupivacaine - administration & dosage
Comparative Study
Female
Humans
Injections
Lidocaine - administration & dosage
Male
Middle Aged
Orbit - drug effects
Pain - drug therapy - etiology - physiopathology
Pain Measurement
Phacoemulsification - adverse effects - methods
Procaine - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives
Prospective Studies
Sclera - surgery
Surgical Flaps
Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the pain produced during different phases of phacoemulsification cataract surgery using a scleral pocket incision under topical versus peribulbar anesthesia. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. METHODS: This prospective study comprised 100 cataract patients who were randomly selected to have phacoemulsification with a scleral pocket incision using either topical or peribulbar anesthesia. Topical anesthesia comprised oxybuprocaine 0.4% drops. Peribulbar anesthesia was given with an inferolateral transconjuctival injection of an even mixture of lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% with hyaluronidase. Inadvertent eye movement during surgery was recorded. Pain occurring during intravenous line cannulation, introduction of the anesthetic agent, and phacoemulsification was measured using a visual analog scale (from 0 to 10) and a descriptive verbal 5-step scale. Patients were asked about pain immediately after each phase. RESULTS: The pain during cannulation was similar in both groups (P = .498). The peribulbar injection was statistically significantly more painful than induction of topical anesthesia (2.11 and 0.10, respectively; P
Notes
Comment In: J Cataract Refract Surg. 1998 Dec;24(12):1546-79850885
PubMed ID
9850899 View in PubMed
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Wellbeing of professionals at entry into the labour market: a follow up survey of medicine and architecture students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192901
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001 Nov;55(11):831-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
P. Virtanen
A M Koivisto
Author Affiliation
Medical School, 33014 University of Tampere, Finland. pekka.j.virtanen@uta.fi
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001 Nov;55(11):831-5
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Architecture as Topic
Career Mobility
Employment
Female
Finland
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Medicine
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Social Identification
Abstract
Knowledge about changes in wellbeing during the passage from professional studies to working life is scarce and controversial. This study examined these changes among university graduates with good and poor employment prospects.
A longitudinal study with four postal questionnaire surveys of a closed cohort.
Cohorts of graduating Finnish physicians and architects were followed up from 1994 to 1998. In 1994 Finland's national economy was still struggling to break loose from a period of severe recession, and unemployment rates were high even among educated professionals. As economic growth eventually got under way the unemployment situation began to ease for physicians but not for architects.
Architecture students (n = 189) from Finland's three technical universities and medical students (n = 638) from Finland's five medical faculties. Both had started their studies in 1989.
In the first questionnaire survey there were no differences between the professions in strain resistance resources, as indicated by Sense of Coherence (SOC), or in psychological distress, as indicated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Profession emerged as a significant between subject factor in analysis of variance for repeated measures of both SOC and GHQ. Physicians' scores on the 13 item SOC questionnaire improved during the follow up from 62.6 to 67.5 and on the 12 item GHQ questionnaire from 24.2 to 22.2. Among architects the corresponding scores remained unchanged (62.5-62.2 and 23.1-22.6). The significance of profession remained unchanged when gender and individuals' graduation and total work experience were introduced to the statistical models as between subject factors.
Improved SOC in physicians but not in architects supports the hypothesis that good employment prospects are important to employee wellbeing. Although less consistent, indicating fluctuations in day to day psychological distress, GHQ findings are also in line with the hypothesis. In both professions the indicators studied were independent of individuals' graduation and career. It is concluded that rather than individually, the mechanisms that connect employment prospects with wellbeing operate collectively within the whole profession. Highly educated professionals do not complete their studies until almost 30, and if for reasons of insecure employment they are unable to develop their SOC to the optimum level at that age, their resources for resisting health endangering strain may remain permanently poor.
Notes
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Mar;36(6):725-338480217
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Mar;36(6):715-248480216
Cites: Br J Psychol. 1991 Nov;82 ( Pt 4):473-861782517
Cites: Behav Med. 1990 Summer;16(2):76-892364180
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1998 Jul;88(7):1030-69663149
Cites: J Adolesc. 1997 Jun;20(3):243-609208345
Cites: J Adolesc. 1997 Jun;20(3):281-929208347
Cites: J Adolesc. 1997 Jun;20(3):293-3059208348
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Jul;37(1):41-528332923
Cites: J Adv Nurs. 1993 Nov;18(11):1772-88288823
PubMed ID
11604440 View in PubMed
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Bathing fever epidemic of unknown aetiology in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245487
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1980 Sep;9(3):215-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1980
Author
S. Aro
A. Muittari
P. Virtanen
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1980 Sep;9(3):215-8
Date
Sep-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bacterial Infections
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Syndrome
Water Microbiology
Water supply
Abstract
Since August, 1978, an epidemic characterised by respiratory symptoms and fever spread rapidly in a restricted area near Tampere, Finland. Four months later over half of the adult population reported intermittent or constant symptoms. The most frequent symptoms were cough, dyspnoea, chills, fever, headaches, muscle pain and aching of joints. The symptoms appeared to be associated with exposure to water vapour derived from tap water. Consequently this disease, which resembled extrinsic allergic alveolitis, was given the name 'bathing fever' for lack of any prevailing diagnosis. In clinical provocation tests lung diffusion capacity usually decreased, the leucocyte count increased, and a slight rise in body temperature was observed. Despite many efforts the specific causative agent in the tap water has not been identified. Neither massive chlorination of the water nor changing the sand filter of the water-works had any significant effect on the quality of the water. Therefore the source of water supply was changed in April, 1979. The symptoms have subsequently disappeared. Present knowledge about bathing fever suggests that, though rare, it may be typical of the Scandinavian type of climate.
PubMed ID
7440043 View in PubMed
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Health status and health behaviour as predictors of the occurrence of unemployment and prolonged unemployment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118903
Source
Public Health. 2013 Jan;127(1):46-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
P. Virtanen
U. Janlert
A. Hammarström
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Medisiinarinkatu, FIN-3014 Tampere, Finland. pekka.j.virtanen@uta.fi
Source
Public Health. 2013 Jan;127(1):46-52
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Health status
Humans
Sweden
Time Factors
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Earlier research on health-related selection into unemployment has been based on relatively severe health problems, leaves questions unanswered about particular problems, follow-up times have been short and the measurement of unemployment utilised has been crude. The present study explores the effects of suboptimal health on employment in the long term, with statistics that enable assessment of the occurrence and extent of unemployment.
Employment status of a population cohort (n = 1083) was measured half-yearly from 18 to 42 years of age with four follow-up surveys.
Health status at 30 years of age was assessed with nine indicators. Their associations with the occurrence of a period of unemployment during the subsequent 12 years were analysed with Cox proportional hazard models, and generalized linear models were applied in assessing their associations with prolonged unemployment.
Suboptimal self-rated health and suboptimal mood were the most robust predictors of both occurrence of unemployment {hazard rates 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.94] and 1.59 (95% CI 1.19-2.12), respectively} and prolonged unemployment [risk ratios 1.95 (95% CI 1.66-2.29) and 1.44 (95% CI 1.24-1.67), respectively]. Significant associations, particularly with prolonged unemployment, were also seen for musculoskeletal pain, suboptimal sense functions and sleep quality, and smoking and risky alcohol intake.
There is health-related selection into unemployment in early middle age, irrespective of unemployment earlier in the life course. High risk ratios for prolonged unemployment suggest that selection takes place, in particular, at re-employment. The findings indicate the need for policies to prevent those with a history of health problems being at a disadvantage in terms of future employment.
PubMed ID
23158056 View in PubMed
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Workplace as an origin of health inequalities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200801
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Jul;53(7):399-407
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
J. Vahtera
P. Virtanen
M. Kivimäki
J. Pentti
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Jul;53(7):399-407
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Finland
Health
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Occupations
Sex Factors
Sick Leave
Social Class
Abstract
To investigate the effect of the workplace on the socioeconomic gradient of sickness absence.
Comparison of the relation between socioeconomic status and employee sickness absence in three different towns.
The towns of Raisio, Valkeakoski, and Nokia in Finland. They are equal in size and regional social deprivation indices, located in the neighbourhood of a larger city, and produce the same services to the inhabitants.
All permanent local government employees from Raisio (n = 887), Valkeakoski (n = 972), and Nokia (n = 934) on the employer's registers during 1991 to 1993.
Rates of short (1-3 days) and long (> 3 days) spells of sickness absence, irrespective of cause, and separately for infection, musculoskeletal disorder, and trauma.
In blue collar male and female workers, compared with the same sex higher grade white collar workers, the age adjusted numbers of long sick leaves were 4.9 (95% CI 4.2, 5.8) and 2.8 (2.6, 3.1) times higher, respectively. The risk varied significantly between the towns, in men in relation to long sick leaves irrespective of cause and resulting from musculoskeletal disorders, and in women in relation to long leaves resulting from infection. The numbers of long sick leaves were 3.9 (95% CI 2.8, 5.4) times higher in blue collar male workers than in higher grade white collar male workers in Raisio, 4.9 (95% CI 3.8, 6.3) times higher in Valkeakoski, and 5.8 (95% CI 4.5, 7.5) times higher in Nokia. Sickness absence of blue collar employees differed most between the towns. The rates of long sick leaves in blue collar men were 1.46 times greater (95% CI 1.25, 1.72) in Valkeakoski and 1.85 times greater (95% CI 1.58, 2.16) in Nokia than in Raisio. In men, no significant differences were found between the towns as regards the numbers of long sick leaves of higher grade white collar male workers. The socioeconomic gradients differed more between the towns in men who had worked for four years or more in the same employment than in men who had worked for shorter periods. No consistent health gradients of socioeconomic status were evident for short sick leaves among either sex.
In men and to a lesser extent in women, the workplace is significantly associated with health inequalities as reflected by medically certified sickness absence and the corresponding socioeconomic gradients of health.
Notes
Cites: Lancet. 1984 May 5;1(8384):1003-66143919
Cites: BMJ. 1997 Feb 22;314(7080):547-529055712
Cites: BMJ. 1993 Oct 30;307(6912):1097-1028251806
Cites: BMJ. 1993 Feb 6;306(6874):361-68461681
Cites: Lancet. 1991 Jun 8;337(8754):1387-931674771
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Cites: BMJ. 1994 Apr 30;308(6937):1125-88173452
PubMed ID
10492732 View in PubMed
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[Problem based learning assessed by medical students].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192463
Source
Duodecim. 1998;114(19):1956-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
D. Holmberg-Marttila
I. Virjo
E. Kosunen
P. Virtanen
Author Affiliation
Tampereen yliopiston lääketieteen laitos PL 607 33101 Tampere. medoho@uta.fi
Source
Duodecim. 1998;114(19):1956-61
Date
1998
Language
Finnish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Education, Medical - methods
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Problem-Based Learning - standards
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological
Students, Medical - psychology
PubMed ID
11717749 View in PubMed
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Absenteeism following a workplace intervention for older food industry workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133397
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2011 Dec;61(8):583-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
A. Siukola
P. Virtanen
H. Huhtala
C-H Nygård
Author Affiliation
School of Health Sciences, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. anna.siukola@uta.fi
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2011 Dec;61(8):583-5
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Age Factors
Finland
Food Industry
Humans
Middle Aged
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Health Services - methods
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Workplace
Abstract
The effects of workplace interventions on sickness absence are poorly understood, in particular in ageing workers.
To analyse the effects of a senior programme on sickness absence among blue-collar food industry workers of a food company in Finland.
We followed up 129 employees aged 55 years or older, who participated in a senior programme (intervention group), and 229 employees of the same age from the same company who did not participate (control group). Total sickness absence days and spells of 1-3, 4-7, 8-21 and >21 days were recorded for the members of the intervention group from the year before joining the programme and for the control group starting at age 54 years. Both groups were followed for up to 6 years.
The median number of sickness absence days per person-year increased significantly from baseline in both groups during the follow-up. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had increased risk for 1-3 days spells [rate ratio 1.34 (1.21-1.48)] and 4-7 days spells [rate ratio 1.23 (1.07-1.41)], but the risk for >21 days spells was decreased [rate ratio 0.68 (0.53-0.88)] after participation in the senior programme.
A programme to enhance individual work well-being in ageing workers may increase short-term but reduce long-term sickness absence.
PubMed ID
21709171 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.