The study was carried out to determine the associations of alcohol beverage drinking with macronutrients, antioxidants, and body mass index.
Dietary subsample of the 1992 Finmonica cardiovascular risk factor survey in Finland; a cross-sectional study.
985 women and 863 men were drawn from the population register in the four monitoring areas. All subjects were 25-64 y of age.
The mailed questionnaire included questions covering socioeconomic factors, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The diet was assessed using a three-day food record.
The dietary differences between abstainers and alcohol consumers were more significant than between consumers of different alcoholic beverages. Among drinkers, fat intake as a percentage of energy was higher and carbohydrate intake was lower than among abstainers. Those who preferred wine, however, had the highest vitamin C intake; female wine drinkers also had the highest carotenoid intake. With the exception of those who mainly preferred spirits, alcohol energy was not added to the diet but seemed to substitute food items both in men and women. Despite the similar total daily energy intakes, daily energy expenditure, and physical activity index, male drinkers were leaner than abstainers. In women, the proportion of underreporters of energy intake increased with increasing alcohol consumption, and the association between alcohol and body mass index was similar to that in men after the exclusion of underreporters.
Alcohol consumers were leaner than abstainers, and wine drinkers in particular had more antioxidants in their diet.
The association between coffee consumption and serum cholesterol was studied in a cross-sectional epidemiological study in Finland where the annual per capita consumption of coffee (13.0 kg) is the highest in the world. Coffee consumption was assessed by a questionnaire in a representative population sample of 4744 men and 4495 women aged 25 to 64 years. Serum total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were determined in fresh sera by the enzymatic method. Data on a large number of potential confounding variables were also collected. In the age group 25 to 44 years, the level of serum total cholesterol increased linearly with increasing coffee consumption in both sexes, but in people aged 45 to 64 the peak level of serum cholesterol was found in those who consumed 4 to 6 cups of coffee per day. In the analysis of covariance controlling for age, body mass index, intake of fat, sugar, and alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and fasting time, the mean level of serum cholesterol of men was lower (p less than 0.001) in those who drank no coffee (5.9 mmol/l) than in those who drank 1 to 3 cups (6.1 mmol/l) or 4 or more cups (6.2 mmol/l) per day. In women, the corresponding mean serum cholesterol values were 5.8 mmol/l, 6.1 mmol/l, and 6.1 mmol/l (p less than 0.05). Serum HDL-cholesterol levels did not vary significantly with coffee consumption. There was a slight inverse association between tea drinking and serum total cholesterol in men (p less than 0.05) but not in women. Although our results suggest a positive association, the impact of coffee drinking on serum cholesterol seems to be minimal. The results also indicate that the possible mechanisms do not include caffeine.
The association between coffee consumption and serum cholesterol concentration was studied in a cross-sectional epidemiological study among 5704 men and women in Finland. The mean serum cholesterol values of those consuming boiled coffee (24% of the subjects) was significantly higher than that of drinkers of filtered coffee (69% of the subjects) in both sexes after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, index of saturated fat intake, and physical activity: in men 6.37 versus 6.02 mmol/l, in women 6.22 versus 5.84 mmol/l, both significant at p less than 0.001. A significant dose-dependent effect was observed between the consumption of boiled coffee both in men and in women. For filter coffee drinkers a weak coffee dose-cholesterol association was found only for women. The magnitude of the effect of boiled coffee, 0.3-0.4 mmol/l in serum cholesterol values, is in accordance with the results from controlled trials carried out among both hyper- and normocholesterolaemic subjects.
It has been suggested that recall bias may explain the discrepant results between case-control and cohort studies on diet and the risk of breast cancer. Two control groups were used for this case-control study of 25 to 75-year-old breast cancer cases (n = 310). The first group consisted of population controls drawn from the Finnish National Population Register (n = 454). The second group consisted of women who were referred to the same examinations as were the cases because of clinical suspicion of breast disease but who were later diagnosed as healthy (referral controls; n = 506). Because the diagnosis was unknown at the time of interview, it was possible to assess by comparing the two control groups whether the self-reporting of diet changed under the threat of disease. Dietary habits were examined using a validated, self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Premenopausal women misreported their consumption of liquid milk products, tea, and sugar. Reporting bias was also associated with the intake of fat and vitamins. Postmenopausal women misreported consumption of milk products. When recall bias was taken into consideration, milk was associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer, whereas high consumption of poultry or high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and vitamin E were related to lower risk. The study suggested that oil, milk, cheese, coffee and beta-carotene may act as protective factors in postmenopausal women, whereas butter and cream may be risk factors for breast cancer. In summary, it is possible that some food items may be overreported or underreported under the threat of disease in health-conscious population. However, most of the results in this study were not modified by recall bias.
The authors examined prospectively whether dietary folate and other factors known to influence methyl-group availability were associated with the development of exocrine pancreatic cancer within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Of the 27,101 healthy male smokers aged 50--69 years who completed a self-administered dietary questionnaire at baseline, 157 developed pancreatic cancer during up to 13 years of follow-up from 1985 to 1997. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The adjusted hazards ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of dietary folate intake was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.87; p-trend = 0.05). Dietary methionine, alcohol intake, and smoking history did not modify this relation. No significant associations were observed between dietary methionine, vitamins B(6) and B(12), or alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Consistent with prior studies, this study shows that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk (highest compared with lowest quintile, cigarettes per day: hazards ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 3.03; p-trend = 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that dietary folate intake is inversely associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer and confirm the risk associated with greater cigarette smoking.
The relation of intakes of specific fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart disease was examined in a cohort of 21,930 smoking men aged 50-69 years who were initially free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease. All men participated in the Finnish Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study and completed a detailed and validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 6.1 years of follow-up from 1985-1988, the authors documented 1,399 major coronary events and 635 coronary deaths. After controlling for age, supplement group, several coronary risk factors, total energy, and fiber intake, the authors observed a significant positive association between the intake of trans-fatty acids and the risk of coronary death. For men in the top quintile of trans-fatty acid intake (median = 6.2 g/day), the multivariate relative risk of coronary death was 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.78) (p for trend = 0.004) as compared with men in the lowest quintile of intake (median = 1.3 g/day). The intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish was also directly related to the risk of coronary death in the multivariate model adjusting also for trans-saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (relative risk (RR) = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.67) (p for trend = 0.06 for men in the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest). There was no association between intakes of saturated or cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, linoleic or linolenic acid, or dietary cholesterol and the risk of coronary deaths. All the associations were similar but somewhat weaker for all major coronary events.
We examined the relation between dietary fruit and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamin intakes and the risk of bladder cancer among male smokers in a prospective cohort study. Over a median of 11 years, we followed 27 111 male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. During this period, 344 men developed bladder cancer. All of these men had completed a 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals and to simultaneously adjust for age, smoking history, energy intake and intervention group. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (relative risk=1.28; 95% confidence intervals CI: 0.89-1.84, for highest vs lowest quintile). Similarly, no associations were observed for groups of fruits or vegetables (berries and cruciferous vegetables), or for specific fruits and vegetables. Dietary intakes of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamins A, E, and C, and folate were not related to the risk of bladder cancer. These findings suggest that fruit and vegetable intakes are not likely to be associated with bladder cancer risk. However, these results may not be generalisable to non-smokers.
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Cites: Int J Cancer. 2000 Apr 1;86(1):132-810728607
Cites: Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Dec;11(10):933-911142528
To study the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer.
A case-control study carried out in eastern Finland. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by two methods: a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including alcohol consumption during the previous 12 months, and a lifetime alcohol consumption questionnaire (AQ) which was administered by the study nurse.
The study consisted of 301 breast cancer cases (25-75 years old) and 443 population controls.
The subjects reported higher current alcohol consumption in the AQ compared to the FFQ. According to the AQ, premenopausal cases consumed on average 28 g and controls 24 g alcohol week(-1); in postmenopausal women the values were 15 and 14 g, respectively. About 30% of premenopausal and 60% of postmenopausal women were classified as non-drinkers. The correlation for current alcohol consumption between the FFQ and the AQ was 0.80 in premenopausal women but only 0.40 in postmenopausal women. Current alcohol consumption seemed to influence the reporting of total lifetime alcohol consumption. Current alcohol consumption was not associated with the risk of breast cancer either in premenopausal or postmenopausal women; neither were associations found between alcohol consumption at age of first use, use before the age of 30, or total lifetime alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer.
On average, one to three drinks per week did not increase the risk of breast cancer in this study. Consumption levels were, however, too low to exclude increased risk with high regular consumption. Further research is necessary on lifetime alcohol consumption.
High intakes of calcium, potassium, and fluids have been shown to be associated with lowered risk of kidney stones. The authors studied the associations between diet and risk of kidney stones in a cohort of 27,001 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially free of kidney stones. All men participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study and completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up (1985-1988), 329 men had been diagnosed with kidney stones. After data were controlled for possible confounders, the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest quartile of magnesium intake was 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.85) as compared with men in the lowest quartile. Intake of fiber was directly associated with risk (relative risk (RR) = 2.06, 95% CI 1.39-3.03). Calcium intake was not associated with the risk of kidney stones. Beer consumption was inversely associated with risk of kidney stones; each bottle of beer consumed per day was estimated to reduce risk by 40% (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47-0.76). In conclusion, the authors observed that magnesium intake and beer consumption were inversely associated and fiber intake was directly associated with risk of kidney stones.
The study was carried out to determine associations of reported alcohol intake with diet and body mass index. Type and frequency of consumed alcohol were also considered.
A cross-sectional study.
The baseline examination of the participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985-1988.
27215 middle-aged Finnish male smokers.
The diet was assessed by a self-administered food use questionnaire: Subject's habitual diet and alcohol intake over the previous 12 months were asked. Body mass index was used as the measure of adiposity.
Energy intake from food was not related to alcohol intake. Although alcohol consumption was associated with food selection (eg berry and coffee consumption), this only slightly influenced daily nutrient intakes. Intake of spirits was more consistently related to higher body mass index than that of other alcoholic beverages. Daily alcohol intake had a much smaller association with body mass index than less frequent use, independently of the total consumption.
The differences in nutrient intake between abstainers, light and moderate alcohol consumers were small although the consumption of many foods varied with alcohol consumption. Even if alcohol consumption is one noteworthy factor associated with weight, the energy from alcohol increases body weight less than expected; both the type and frequency of consumed alcohol may explain why energy from alcohol is utilized less efficiently than non-alcoholic energy.