A 3-year experimental toothbrushing study was conducted in a natural fluoride area in Denmark to evaluate the anti-caries effect of a 2% sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice. In a previous report the results for the total population of 1,407 schoolchildren, representing a broad age-span (7-12 years), at the commencement of the study in 1970 were given. In the present report results are presented for two subpopulations of "8-year-olds" and "11-year-olds" at the commencement of the study. Differential analysis of the effect of the test dentifrice on defined types of surfaces for the two subpopulations is given. The evaluation was performed using both the conventional DMF-indices and the recently published ECSI-Index6. The evaluation showed that the test dentifrice had a valuable anti-caries effect in both age groups, above and beyond the effect of the waterborne fluoride. Proximal surfaces were affected most baneficially by the active agent both in relative and absolute terms. However, an appreciable caries-preventive effect was also found on the "pit and fissure" surfaces.
The prevalence and distribution of seropositivity towards the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum were studied in single blood samples from 1561 cows from 31 Danish dairy herds. Blood samples were analysed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay and an indirect fluorescent-antibody test. Seroprevalence in 15 herds with previous abortions assigned to neosporosis ranged from 1% to 58%, with a mean frequency of 22%. In eight out of 16 herds without a history of N.caninum related abortions, no seroreactors were found. In the remaining eight herds, the seroprevalence ranged from 6% to 59%. The prevalence and distribution of seropositivity, gestation number prior to sampling, and breed were related to abortions and perinatal deaths using a random-effects logistic-regression model. Abortion risk was significantly increased in seropositive animals (OR = 3) and in > or = 2nd-gestation cows (OR = 3). Perinatal death was significantly influenced by gestation number and breed, but not by serostatus. Reproductive performance and culling risk of cows were not affected by serostatus. Seropositivity increased with "age" (i.e. gestation number) (P = 0.02). In open cows, seropositivity tended to decrease with distance from calving (P = 0.05). The proportion of seropositive pregnant cows increased with trimester (P = 0.02).
The Danish oral health care services for children began its development at the beginning of this century. The aims and main principles of the service were formulated in the 1960s and in 1971 the Danish Parliament passed the Act on the Children's Oral Health Care System. By 1987 a complete oral health care service as a decentralized public health enterprise will be fully established covering all Danish children from 0 to 16 years of age. The oral health care programme is founded on health education and prevention. Treatment services are considered to be a safety net for disease not yet prevented. The oral health care service for children is described in detail and future developments are discussed.
A 1-year study of the isolated effect of an intensive motivation program aimed at improving the oral health status of 11-13-year-old schoolchildren was conducted in a Danish provincial town where all children have access to a free and comprehensive school oral health program. The effect was negligible as measured by epidemiologic indices.
BACKGROUND: Although cholesterol is a major cardiovascular risk factor, its association with stroke remains controversial. This study explored whether the cholesterol-related incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction is modified by plasma markers of inflammation in a large, population-based cohort with a long follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma cholesterol and 5 inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins (ISP) (fibrinogen, alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and orosomucoid) were determined in 6063 healthy men, 28 to 61 years of age. The incidence of stroke, cardiac events (fatal and nonfatal), and cardiovascular deaths was compared between groups defined by levels of cholesterol and ISP. Mean follow-up was 18.7 years. High ISP level was defined as 2 to 5 ISP in the top quartile. High cholesterol was associated with higher levels of ISP. Hypercholesterolemia (> or =6.5 mmol/L, 251 mg/dL) was associated with an increased incidence of ischemic stroke and cardiac events and with a reduced incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage. The ISP levels modified these associations. After risk factor adjustment, men with hypercholesterolemia and high ISP levels had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular death (relative risk [RR]=2.4; CI, 1.8 to 3.3), cardiac events (RR=2.3; CI, 1.8 to 3.0), and ischemic stroke (RR=2.1; CI, 1.4 to 3.3) than men with normal cholesterol and low ISP levels. In the absence of high ISP levels, hypercholesterolemia was associated with a moderately higher risk of cardiovascular death (RR=1.4; CI, 1.0 to 2.0) and cardiac events (RR=1.5; CI, 1.2 to 1.9) but not significantly with ischemic stroke (RR=1.25; CI, 0.8 to 2.0). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia is associated with high plasma levels of ISP. These proteins increase the cholesterol-related incidence of cardiovascular diseases. In the absence of elevated ISP levels, no statistically confirmed association was found between hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke.
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Jun 4;105(22):2583-512045159
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Jun 4;105(22):e911112045180
Inflammation may play an important role in atherosclerotic disease. Plasma fibrinogen is an established predictor of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether other inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins modify this prediction. We studied the incidence of cardiac events and death in men in relation to fibrinogen levels alone and in combination with other proteins. The study was based on 6075 men, who were, on average, 46 years old at the time of the screening examination, which included the quantitative assessment of plasma levels of fibrinogen, orosomucoid, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin. The concentration of each protein was divided into quartiles for each. This classification made it possible to identify 4 groups, ie, men in the first fibrinogen quartile and at the same time either not belonging to the fourth quartile of any of the other proteins (Q1/No group) or also belonging to the fourth quartile of >/=1 of the additional proteins (Q1/Yes group) and corresponding groups in the fourth fibrinogen quartile (Q4/No and Q4/Yes groups). During the follow-up, which occurred at an average of 16 years, 439 (7.2%) men experienced a cardiac event, and 653 (10.7%) died; 278 of these men died of cardiovascular diseases, with 206 deaths attributed to ischemic heart disease. From the lowest to the highest quartile, there was for each protein a stepwise increase in the incidence of cardiac events and mortality. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were significantly higher in the Q4/Yes group compared with the Q4/No group, but they were similar in the Q4/No and Q1/Yes groups. The incidence of cardiac events was significantly higher in the Q1/Yes and Q4/Yes groups compared with the Q1/No and Q4/No groups, respectively. The increased cardiovascular mortality and cardiac event rates remained after adjustment for several confounders when the Q4/Yes and Q4/No groups were compared. The results suggest that the incidence of cardiac events and death due to cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men predicted by plasma levels of fibrinogen is modified by other inflammation-sensitive proteins.
A group of 252 cattle without clinical signs of paratuberculosis (paraTB) in 10 herds infected with paraTB and a group of 117 cattle in 5 herds without paraTB were selected. Whole-blood samples were stimulated with bovine, avian, and johnin purified protein derivative (PPD) and examined for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release. For diagnosis of paraTB, satisfactory estimated specificities (95 to 99%) could be obtained by johnin PPD stimulation irrespective of interpretation relative to bovine PPD or no-antigen stimulation alone, but numbers of test positives in the infected herds varied from 64 to 112 with different interpretation criteria. For a limited number of test-positive animals, no change in the test results could be observed with increasing antigen concentrations but IFN-gamma responses were significantly reduced (P