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Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201045
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep;107(9):705-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1999
Author
P. Kurttio
E. Pukkala
H. Kahelin
A. Auvinen
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Kuopio, Finland. paivi.kurttio@ktl.fi
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep;107(9):705-10
Date
Sep-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arsenic - analysis
Arsenic Poisoning - complications
Female
Finland
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - chemically induced
Male
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - chemically induced
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
We assessed the levels of arsenic in drilled wells in Finland and studied the association of arsenic exposure with the risk of bladder and kidney cancers. The study persons were selected from a register-based cohort of all Finns who had lived at an address outside the municipal drinking-water system during 1967-1980 (n = 144,627). The final study population consisted of 61 bladder cancer cases and 49 kidney cancer cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1995, as well as an age- and sex-balanced random sample of 275 subjects (reference cohort). Water samples were obtained from the wells used by the study population at least during 1967-1980. The total arsenic concentrations in the wells of the reference cohort were low (median = 0.1 microg/L; maximum = 64 microg/L), and 1% exceeded 10 microg/L. Arsenic exposure was estimated as arsenic concentration in the well, daily dose, and cumulative dose of arsenic. None of the exposure indicators was statistically significantly associated with the risk of kidney cancer. Bladder cancer tended to be associated with arsenic concentration and daily dose during the third to ninth years prior to the cancer diagnosis; the risk ratios for arsenic concentration categories 0.1-0.5 and [Greater/equal to] 0.5 microg/L relative to the category with
Notes
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PubMed ID
10464069 View in PubMed
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A compartmental model of uranium in human hair for protracted ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151081
Source
Health Phys. 2009 Jun;96(6):636-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
W B Li
Z. Karpas
L. Salonen
P. Kurttio
M. Muikku
W. Wahl
V. Höllriegl
C. Hoeschen
U. Oeh
Author Affiliation
Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg D-85764, Germany. wli@helmholtz-muenchen.de
Source
Health Phys. 2009 Jun;96(6):636-45
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biophysical Phenomena
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Finland
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Male
Models, Biological
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Tissue Distribution
Uranium - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics - urine
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics - urine
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
To predict uranium in human hair due to chronic exposure through drinking water, a compartment representing human hair was added into the uranium biokinetic model developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The hair compartmental model was used to predict uranium excretion in human hair as a bioassay indicator due to elevated uranium intakes. Two excretion pathways, one starting from the compartment of plasma and the other from the compartment of intermediate turnover soft tissue, are assumed to transfer uranium to the compartment of hair. The transfer rate was determined from reported uranium contents in urine and in hair, taking into account the hair growth rate of 0.1 g d(-1). The fractional absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of 0.6% was found to fit best to describe the measured uranium levels among the users of drilled wells in Finland. The ingestion dose coefficient for (238)U, which includes its progeny of (234)Th, (234m)Pa, and (234)Pa, was calculated equal to 1.3 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) according to the hair compartmental model. This estimate is smaller than the value of 4.5 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) published by ICRP for the members of the public. In this new model, excretion of uranium through urine is better represented when excretion to the hair compartment is accounted for and hair analysis can provide a means for assessing the internal body burden of uranium. The model is applicable for chronic exposure as well as for an acute exposure incident. In the latter case, the hair sample can be collected and analyzed even several days after the incident, whereas urinalysis requires sample collection shortly after the exposure. The model developed in this study applies to ingestion intakes of uranium.
PubMed ID
19430216 View in PubMed
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Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200558
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):817-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-1999
Author
P. Kurttio
N. Gustavsson
T. Vartiainen
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):817-24
Date
Oct-15-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Fluorides - adverse effects - analysis
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Rural Population
Water supply
Abstract
In the retrospective cohort study based on record linkage, the authors studied a cohort of persons born in 1900-1930 (n = 144,627), who had lived in the same rural location at least from 1967 to 1980. Estimates for fluoride concentrations (median, 0.1 mg/liter; maximum, 2.4 mg/liter) in well water in each member of the cohort were obtained by a weighted median smoothing method based on ground water measurements. Information on hip fractures was obtained from the Hospital Discharge Registry for 1981-1994. No association was observed between hip fractures and estimated fluoride concentration in the well water in either men or women when all age groups were analyzed together. However, the association was modified by age and sex so that among younger women, those aged 50-64 years, higher fluoride levels increased the risk of hip fractures. Among older men and women and younger men, no consistent association was seen. The adjusted rate ratio was 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 3.76) for younger women who were the most exposed (>1.5 mg/liter) when compared with those who were the least exposed (
PubMed ID
10522652 View in PubMed
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Increased mercury exposure in inhabitants living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: a 10-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205761
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1998 Mar-Apr;53(2):129-37
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Kurttio
J. Pekkanen
G. Alfthan
M. Paunio
J J Jaakkola
O P Heinonen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1998 Mar-Apr;53(2):129-37
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Child
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollution - analysis
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Fish Products
Fishes
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Hair - chemistry
Hazardous Waste - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incineration
Logistic Models
Male
Mercury - analysis - blood
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Water Supply - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A hazardous-waste-treatment plant that housed an incinerator began operation in 1984, before which a baseline survey of the surrounding population and environment was conducted; 10 y later, investigators studied the same subjects. Researchers focused on mercury exposure because mercury concentrations were present in the stack emissions, and environmental monitoring revealed mercury concentrations near the plant. In 1984 and 1994 the median hair mercury concentrations were 0.5 mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively. During the 10-y period, median hair total mercury concentrations increased by 0.35 mg/kg in workers (n = 11); by 0.16 mg/kg, 0.13 mg/kg, and 0.03 mg/kg in individuals who lived 2 km (n = 45), 2-4 km (n = 38), and 5 km (n = 30) from the plant, respectively; and by 0.02 mg/kg in the reference group (n = 55). In summary, mercury exposure increased as distance from the plant decreased; however, the increase in exposure was minimal and, on the basis of current knowledge, did not pose a health risk.
PubMed ID
9577936 View in PubMed
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Urine, hair, and nails as indicators for ingestion of uranium in drinking water.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176216
Source
Health Phys. 2005 Mar;88(3):229-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Z. Karpas
O. Paz-Tal
A. Lorber
L. Salonen
H. Komulainen
A. Auvinen
H. Saha
P. Kurttio
Author Affiliation
Nuclear Research Center, Negev, P. O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84190. karpas4@netvision.net.il
Source
Health Phys. 2005 Mar;88(3):229-42
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Burden
Eating
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hair - metabolism
Humans
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Nails - metabolism
Organ Specificity
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Statistics as Topic
Uranium - administration & dosage - pharmacokinetics - urine
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The concentration of uranium in urine, hair, and nails due to continuous exposure through ingestion of drinking water was studied. The study population consisted of 205 individuals living in 134 different households in southern Finland where drinking water is supplied from private drilled wells. The population was selected to include a broad range of uranium daily intake from drinking water (0.03-2,775 microg d). The uranium content in drinking water, urine (overnight collection), hair and nails was determined by ICPMS. Uranium in urine was corrected for the matrix effects by use of thallium as an internal standard and adjusted by creatinine normalization. Hair and toenail samples were rinsed to remove external contamination prior to acid digestion and analysis. The uranium content in all excretion pathways was correlated with the uranium intake, particularly at elevated levels (> or =10 microg d) where drinking water was the major source of exposure to uranium. The median of the individual uranium absorption factors for urine, hair, and toenails were fu=0.003, fh=0.003, and fn=4 x 10, respectively. The association between the different bioassays was examined. The absorption factor, f1, was calculated for the population with an intake above 10 microg d and was below 0.01 for 72% of the study persons (range 0.0002 to 0.070). No statistically significant difference in f1 values was found between women and men. However, the absorption factor was higher among younger ( or =60 y) subjects and among people with a lower exposure (below 100 microg d) than among those that ingest over 100 microg d.
PubMed ID
15706143 View in PubMed
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