The association between consumption of alcoholic beverages (spirits, beer and wine) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, especially the incidence of sudden coronary death (SCD), was investigated in a 5-year prospective population study comprising 4,532 men aged 40-64 years. The amount of alcohol used was estimated on the basis of answers to a self-filled structured questionnaire. The incidence of SCD was statistically significantly lower among abstainers than among alcohol consumers. The relative risk of SCD of alcohol consumers in comparison with abstainers was largest in the oldest age group and it became more apparent after a follow-up of a couple of years. Only the consumption of spirits was positively associated with the incidence of SCD. Among non-smokers the incidence of SCD was statistically significantly higher in consumers than in abstainers, a similar but not significant trend was observed among current smokers. The positive association between alcohol consumption and incidence of SCD was detected both in CHD-free men and in men with prior CHD. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, and in particular of spirits, is associated with an increased risk of SCD in Finnish men.
The study aimed to reveal associations between dietary antioxidant vitamins and other personal characteristics.
Population based, cross sectional survey.
Twenty seven rural, industrial, and semiurban communities in six different regions of Finland.
Subjects included 5304 men and 4750 women aged 15 years or older, who were interviewed about their dietary habits at the baseline study of the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, 1967-72.
Intakes of carotenoids and vitamins A, E, and C were estimated from dietary history interviews covering the subjects' food consumption in the preceding year. In older age groups intakes of all the vitamins studied were low. Occupation had a profound effect on dietary antioxidant vitamins: intakes were highest in white collar workers and lowest in farmers; those classified as service workers, industrial workers, or housewives came in between. Current smoking was inversely associated with dietary carotenoids and vitamin C, especially in men. The vitamin intakes of ex-smokers were equal to or even slightly higher than those of never smokers. Married men had higher intakes of carotenoids and vitamin C than men living alone. Body mass index was not an important determinant of the intake of antioxidant vitamins.
The associations of dietary antioxidant vitamins with sociodemographic characteristics and smoking were strong enough to exert a confounding or modifying effect in studies on diet and diseases.
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In the light of conflicting results from previous studies on the role of vitamin D, we studied serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with regard to its prediction of incident knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA).
The study population (n = 805) consisted of participants of a national health examination survey who had undergone baseline and follow-up clinical examinations at intervals of 20-23 years. Knee and hip OA were diagnosed on the basis of a standardized clinical examination by physicians with the same diagnostic criteria at baseline and follow-up. Information on covariates, including age, sex, season of blood draw, education, body mass index (BMI), physical workload, leisure time physical activity, smoking history, and previous injuries, was collected at baseline. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined from baseline serum samples kept frozen at -20°C.
We found no significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and the risk of incident knee or hip OA. However, a statistically significant interaction between season of blood draw and serum 25(OH)D emerged when predicting the development of definite knee OA (p = 0.004). After adjusting for all the covariates, the relative odds (95% confidence interval) of developing definite knee OA per increment of 1 SD (20.7 ng/mL) in winter season 25(OH)D was 1.57 (1.10-2.27), whereas for summer season sera the corresponding rate was 0.53 (0.28-1.00).
The results do not support the hypothesis that a low level of serum 25(OH)D contributes to the development of OA. Instead, our study suggests that season is a potent effect modifier of 25(OH)D, which merits attention in future research.
In a population sample health survey, body mass, previous trauma and physical stress were studied for associations with coxarthrosis. A sample of 8,000 persons representative of the Finnish population aged 30 or over was invited for examination, and 90 percent participated. On the basis of a standardized clinical examination, a physician diagnosed coxarthrosis in 6 percent of the women and 4 percent of the men. The prevalence rose with age. In persons with a past traumatic lower-limb injury, the odds ratio of unilateral coxarthrosis was 2.1 and of bilateral coxarthrosis 1.5, as adjusted for sex, age and other determinants using logistic regression. The sum index reflecting self-reported features of physical stress in present or previous occupations was directly proportional to the prevalence of coxarthrosis. Body mass index (kg/m2) was closely associated with bilateral coxarthrosis; the adjusted odds ratio (95 percent confidence intervals) for indices > 35, compared to those
A number of previous studies have reported an inverse relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. However, the association has remained controversial because osteoarthritis in hand joints seems to associate differently from osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints with bone mineral mass. We studied osteoarthritis in distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints and osteoarthritis in the base of the thumb (CMC-1) for their cross-sectional associations with metacarpal cortical bone mineral mass, and for their prediction of calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation.
A population sample of 8000 Finns aged 30 yr and over was invited to a comprehensive health examination in 1978-1980; 90% complied. Hand radiographs were taken from 3568 participants to diagnose osteoarthritis in various hand joints, and to determine two indicators of cortical bone mineral mass, the combined cortical thickness (CCT) and the metacarpal index (MCI). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation was measured 20 yr later in 340 of these participants with the Sahara sonometer.
In the cross-sectional setting, osteoarthritis in the DIP joints and osteoarthritis in the base of the thumb (CMC-1) were significantly associated with low CCT and low MCI. These associations were proportional to the radiological severity of osteoarthritis. In the follow-up setting, symmetrical DIP osteoarthritis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, workload and MCI significantly predicted low values of broadband ultrasound attenuation.
Our results indicate a direct relation of both radiological DIP osteoarthritis and CMC-1 osteoarthritis with low cortical bone mineral mass, in proportion to the severity of osteoarthritis. The presence of symmetrical DIP osteoarthritis, a possible indicator of generalized osteoarthritis, suggests an increased risk of osteoporosis over time.
Clinical experience and observational studies suggest that individuals with coeliac disease are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the precise mechanism for this is unclear. Laboratory studies suggest that it may relate to tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGAs). Our aim was to examine whether seropositivity for tTGA and endomysial antibodies (EMAs) are associated with incident CHD in humans.
We used data from Mini-Finland Health Survey, a prospective cohort study of Finnish men and women aged 35-80 at study baseline 1978-80. TTGA and EMA seropositivities were ascertained from baseline blood samples and incident CHD events were identified from national hospitalisation and death registers. Cox regression was used to examine the associations between antibody seropositivity and incident CHD. Of 6887 men and women, 562 were seropositive for tTGAs and 72 for EMAs. During a median follow-up of 26 years, 2367 individuals experienced a CHD event. We found no clear evidence for an association between tTGA positivity (hazard ratio, HR: 1.04, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83, 1.30) or EMA positivity (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.74) and incident CHD, once pre-existing CVD and known CHD risk factors had been adjusted for.
We found no clear evidence for an association of tTGA or EMA seropositivity with incident CHD outcomes, suggesting that tTG autoimmunity is unlikely to be the biological link between coeliac disease and CHD.
A high level of available tissue iron may increase the risk of cancer through its contribution to the production of free oxygen radicals. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation levels were studied for their prediction of different cancers in a cohort of 41,276 men and women aged 20-74 years and initially free from cancer. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 2,469 primary cancer cases were diagnosed. Excess risks of colorectal and lung cancers were found in subjects with transferrin saturation level exceeding 60%. The relative risks, adjusted for age, sex and smoking, were 3.04 for colorectal cancer and 1.51 for lung cancer, in comparison with subjects having lower levels. The risk of lung cancer was inversely related to serum TIBC, with a relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles of 0.69 for men and 0.19 for women. For the risk of stomach cancer, we detected inverse relationships with serum iron and with transferrin saturation and a positive relationship with TIBC, but these associations weakened when the cancer cases occurring during the 5 first years of follow-up were excluded. High iron stores may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas low iron stores may be an early sign of occult stomach cancer.
To assess whether increased body iron stores and dietary iron intake are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease mortality.
A prospective population study with a mean mortality follow-up time of 14 years.
Participants attending a health screening examination carried out in several localities in Finland.
All 6086 men and 6102 women aged from 45 to 64 years at the baseline examination without known heart disease, who had had serum iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) assessed. In a random fifth of these people, dietary iron intake was assessed by a dietary history.
The study was observational without any interventions.
Mortality from coronary heart disease.
Altogether, 739 of the men and 245 of the women died from coronary heart disease. No relationship between TIBC and coronary mortality was observed in the men; in the women, an inverse although not significant association was found. Transferrin saturation was inversely but not significantly associated with coronary mortality in men; in women, the relationship was U-formed with a higher mortality at both the lower and higher ends of the distribution. Adjustment for other risk factors did not alter the results. No association was found with dietary iron intake and coronary mortality.
The results do not corroborate earlier findings that excess body iron stores and increased iron intake are associated with an elevated risk of coronary heart disease.
BACKGROUND - Screening for ovarian cancer is based on ultrasound, colour Doppler, and tumour markers. There is only limited evidence on their discriminatory performance and no evidence on their effectiveness in reducing mortality. OBJECTIVE - To investigate the discriminatory performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer. METHODS - A registry of 15 093 serum samples drawn in 1968-72 was linked to the cancer registry. During follow up between 1968 and 1980 24 ovarian cancers were identified. One or two matched case-control design nested within the sample bank was applied and the concentrations of CA 125 were assessed. RESULTS - Case-control differences (relative risk 4-0, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 15.5 at 20 kU/1) were found. Detection rate of the CA 125 test was 21-33% and the true negative rate was 75-98% depending on the cut off level and interval between drawing of the blood sample and diagnosis of the cancer. CONCLUSION - CA 125 is not a valid screening test if used alone. Case-control differences of borderline significance were found in CA 125 before diagnosis of ovarian cancer, but they were not large enough to provide a sufficient detection rate.
Helicobacter pylori infection has been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, and low levels of serum pepsinogen I (PG I) have been linked to atrophic gastritis, which is a risk factor for gastric cancer. In Finland, 39,268 persons from 25 cohorts participated during 1968-1972 in a health examination survey and were followed for up to 13 years. A nested case-control study was performed on 84 stomach cancer patients identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry and 146 controls matched for age, sex, and municipality. Serum samples drawn at the baseline study were analyzed. An elevated level of serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies (a titer > or = 70) and a low serum PG I level ( or = 700), the odds ratio was only 1.50 (95% CI 0.70-3.22). When both high IgA and low PG I were present, the odds ratio was 5.96 (95% CI 2.02-17.57). The association of H. pylori infection with cancer became stronger with longer follow-up times, whereas that of low PG I was strongest at shorter follow-up times. Our findings support the hypothesis that H. pylori infection is a prevalent and potentially preventable cause of gastric cancer. They stress the value of IgA antibody determinations and provide new evidence for a pathogenesis leading from prolonged infection through atrophic gastritis to gastric cancer.