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Benchmark dose calculations of methylmercury-associated neurobehavioural deficits.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32898
Source
Toxicol Lett. 2000 Mar 15;112-113:193-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2000
Author
E. Budtz-Jorgensen
P. Grandjean
N. Keiding
R F White
P. Weihe
Author Affiliation
Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Toxicol Lett. 2000 Mar 15;112-113:193-9
Date
Mar-15-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers
Child
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Methylmercury Compounds - administration & dosage - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced - diagnosis
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Psychological Tests
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk assessment
Abstract
Prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with neuropsychological deficits in Faroese children at age 7 years. Lower confidence bounds of benchmark doses (BMDLs) have now been calculated. With the cord-blood mercury concentration as the dose parameter, a logarithmic dose-response model tended to show a better fit than a linear dose model for the attention, language and verbal memory tests. The lowest BMDLs averaged approximately 5 microgram/l cord blood, which corresponds to a maternal hair concentration of approximately 1 microgram/g. However, most BMDLs for hair mercury concentrations were higher. Thus, the results of the benchmark calculations depend on the assumed dose-response model.
PubMed ID
10720731 View in PubMed
Less detail

Birthweight in a fishing community: significance of essential fatty acids and marine food contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58560
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Dec;30(6):1272-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2001
Author
P. Grandjean
K S Bjerve
P. Weihe
U. Steuerwald
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark. pgrandjean@health.sdu.dk
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Dec;30(6):1272-8
Date
Dec-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diet
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - blood
Female
Food Contamination
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Mercury - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy - blood
Pregnancy outcome
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Seafood
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Marine food provides essential fatty acids that are important during pregnancy, but the benefits may be limited at high intakes and by seafood contaminants. METHODS: In the fishing community of the Faroe Islands, 182 pregnant women with spontaneous singleton births were consecutively recruited for a cohort in 1994- 1995. Concentrations of fatty acids and seafood contaminants in blood samples were analysed as predictors of gestational length and birthweight. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased with maternal marine food intake, while the tendency was less clear for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). An increase in the relative concentration of DHA in cord serum phospholipids by 1% was associated with an increased duration of gestation by 1.5 days (95% CI : 0.7-2.2). However, birthweight adjusted for gestational length decreased by 246 g (95% CI : 16-476) for each increase by 1% of the EPA concentration in cord serum. Concentrations of the seafood pollutants mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were associated with fatty acids levels, but the contaminants did not appear to affect any of the outcome parameters. CONCLUSION: An increased intake of marine fats appears to prolong the duration of gestation, but birthweight adjusted for gestational age may decrease at high intake levels. This effect does not seem to be due to increased exposures to seafood contaminants.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Dec;30(6):1279-8011821328
PubMed ID
11821327 View in PubMed
Less detail

Blood lead-blood pressure relations: alcohol intake and hemoglobin as confounders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12336
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Apr;129(4):732-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1989
Author
P. Grandjean
H. Hollnagel
L. Hedegaard
J M Christensen
S. Larsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Apr;129(4):732-9
Date
Apr-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - physiology
Blood pressure
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hemoglobins - analysis
Humans
Lead - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Abstract
A cohort of 1,052 persons (504 men and 548 women) born in 1936 and residing in the Glostrup area, Denmark, underwent a comprehensive physical examination in 1976 at age 40 years, and 966 underwent a complete reexamination five years later. The examinations included blood lead concentration and blood pressure assessment under careful quality control. Complete blood lead and blood pressure data were available for 861 of these subjects (451 men and 410 women). The median blood lead levels were 13 and 9 micrograms/100 ml at age 40 years and 9 and 6 micrograms/100 ml at age 45 years in men and women, respectively. A slightly increased blood lead concentration was seen at age 40 years in women with a systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Systolic blood pressure in men and women and diastolic blood pressure in women correlated significantly with log blood lead at age 40 years but not at age 45 years, a doubling in blood lead being associated with an increase in blood pressure of 3 mmHg or less. Of nine potential confounders assessed, only blood hemoglobin and alleged alcohol intake were significantly associated with both blood lead and blood pressure. If one or both confounders were entered into a multiple regression analysis, all associations between blood lead and blood pressure became nonsignificant, in some cases with a negative regression coefficient. In addition, the blood lead:hemoglobin ratio was poorly associated with blood pressure, particularly in individuals with a low alcohol intake. Because both hemoglobin level and alcohol intake appear to be biologically plausible confounders, any independent effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure could not be determined.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Jun;131(6):10982343863
PubMed ID
2923121 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Blood lead concentration in the Danish population after introduction of lead-free gasoline]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10831
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Aug 10;160(33):4768-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-10-1998
Author
J B Nielsen
P. Grandjean
P J Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Odense Universitet, Afdeling for Miljømedicin.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Aug 10;160(33):4768-71
Date
Aug-10-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Denmark
English Abstract
Environmental Exposure
Female
Gasoline
Humans
Lead - blood
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Blood lead concentrations in a Danish reference population were related to information from an extensive questionnaire on work, environment and life style. The mean concentration of lead in blood was 0.167 mumol/L, i.e. significantly lower than in previous studies. This finding is in accordance with the fact that less than 10% of petrol used in Denmark contained lead additives (up to 0.15 g/L). An important finding was that the well-documented predictors for lead in blood at higher concentration levels, such as age, gender, menopausal status, and intake of alcohol, are still valid in a low-level exposure situation. In addition, a strong and negative correlation was found between blood lead concentrations and dietary supplementation with vitamins and minerals. The present data indicate that lead exposure may still constitute a health risk in a small proportion of adult males and postmenopausal women.
PubMed ID
9715658 View in PubMed
Less detail

Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289301
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 03; 68:207-214
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Date
03-2017
Author
Y Oulhote
Z Shamim
K Kielsen
P Weihe
P Grandjean
L P Ryder
C Heilmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 03; 68:207-214
Date
03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Infant
Leukocyte Count
Leukocytes - cytology
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Methylmercury Compounds - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - blood
Prospective Studies
Abstract
To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5 years.
Extended differential count included: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes (includingT cells, NK cells, and B cells), and monocytes. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in maternal (n=56) and children's blood at 18 months (n=42) and 5 years (n=54). We constructed latent functions for exposures at three different ages using factor analyses and applied structural equation models adjusted for covariates.
Prenatal mercury exposure was associated with depleted total WBC, especially for lymphocytes, where a one standard deviation (SD) increase in the exposure was associated with a decrease by 23% SD (95% CI: -43, -4) in the cell count. Prenatal exposure to OCs was marginally associated with decreases in neutrophil counts. In contrast, the 5-year PFASs concentrations were associated with higher basophil counts (B=46% SD, 95% CI: 13, 79). Significantly reduced subpopulations of lymphocytes such as B cells, CD4-positive T helper cells and CD4 positive recent thymic emigrants may suggest cellular immunity effects and dysregulation of T-cell mediated immunity.
Developmental exposure to environmental immunotoxicants appears to have different impacts on WBC counts in childhood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27497749 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34120
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997 Nov-Dec;19(6):417-28
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Grandjean
P. Weihe
R F White
F. Debes
S. Araki
K. Yokoyama
K. Murata
N. Sørensen
R. Dahl
P J Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark. p.grandjean@winsloew.ou.dk
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997 Nov-Dec;19(6):417-28
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Behavior - drug effects
Child
Cognition Disorders - chemically induced - psychology
Diet
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem - drug effects
Evoked Potentials, Visual - physiology
Female
Humans
Intelligence Tests
Learning - drug effects
Methylmercury Compounds - poisoning
Neuropsychological Tests
Posture - physiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Psychomotor Performance - drug effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
A cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1986-1987 in the Faroe Islands. Increased methylmercury exposure from maternal consumption of pilot whale meat was indicated by mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. Neuropsychological tests included Finger Tapping; Hand-Eye Coordination; reaction time on a Continuous Performance Test; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Digit Spans, Similarities, and Block Designs; Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test; Boston Naming Test; and California Verbal Learning Test (Children). Clinical examination and neurophysiological testing did not reveal any clear-cut mercury-related abnormalities. However, mercury-related neuropsychological dysfunctions were most pronounced in the domains of language, attention, and memory, and to a lesser extent in visuospatial and motor functions. These associations remained after adjustment for covariates and after exclusion of children with maternal hair mercury concentrations above 10 microgram(s) (50 nmol/g). The effects on brain function associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure therefore appear widespread, and early dysfunction is detectable at exposure levels currently considered safe.
PubMed ID
9392777 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cognitive performance of children prenatally exposed to "safe" levels of methylmercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33859
Source
Environ Res. 1998 May;77(2):165-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
P. Grandjean
P. Weihe
R F White
F. Debes
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Odense, 5000, Denmark.
Source
Environ Res. 1998 May;77(2):165-72
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cognition - drug effects - physiology
Eye Movements - drug effects - physiology
Female
Fingers - physiology
Hand - physiology
Humans
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Mercury - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Mercury Poisoning - etiology - physiopathology - psychology
Methylmercury Compounds - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Motor Activity - drug effects - physiology
Movement - drug effects - physiology
Neuropsychological Tests
Psychomotor Performance - drug effects - physiology
Reaction Time - drug effects - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Within a cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births in the Faroe Islands, we assessed prenatal methylmercury exposure from the maternal hair mercury concentration. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. Little risk is thought to occur as long as the hair mercury concentration in pregnant women is kept below 10-20 microg/g (50-100 nmol/l). A case group of 112 children whose mothers had a hair mercury concentration of 10-20 microg/g was therefore matched to children with exposure below 3 microg/g, using age, sex, time of examination, and the mother's score on Raven's Progressive Matrices as matching criteria. The two groups were almost identical with regard to other factors that might affect neurobehavioral performance in this community. On six neuropsychological test measures, the case group showed mild decrements, relative to controls, especially in the domains of motor function, language, and memory. Subtle effects on brain function therefore seem to be detectable at prenatal methylmercury exposure levels currently considered to be safe.
PubMed ID
9600810 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Computer assisted neuropsychological testing of children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33835
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Jun 8;160(24):3557-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-8-1998
Author
U. Nielsen
R. Dahl
R F White
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Odense Universitet, Institut for Sygdomsforebyggelse og Helsetjenesteforskning.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Jun 8;160(24):3557-61
Date
Jun-8-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Behavior
Child Psychology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Denmark
Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Psychomotor Performance
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of a computer-assisted neuro-psychological test program, the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), in six to seven year-old children. We administered three NES tests, Finger Tapping (FT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Hand-Eye Coordination (HEC) to Faroese and Danish children. The FT and CPT were of appropriate difficulty, while the HE was too difficult for the majority of the children. Boys obtained better scores than the girls, and children who were familiar with computers and video games performed better than those without such experience. Older children also obtained better scores than younger ones, especially in the Faroese group. The Danish children performed better than the Faroese in FT and CPT. In HE there was no difference. The NES tests are feasible for children at this age, but appropriate comparison groups must be secured.
PubMed ID
9641043 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 Apr 1;153(14):971-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-1991
Author
P. Grandjean
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 Apr 1;153(14):971-2
Date
Apr-1-1991
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Costs and Cost Analysis
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Lead - adverse effects - analysis
Lead Poisoning - economics
PubMed ID
2024312 View in PubMed
Less detail

Early lead exposure and neonatal jaundice: relation to neurobehavioral performance at 15 years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36281
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1993 May-Jun;15(3):173-81
Publication Type
Article
Author
D. Damm
P. Grandjean
T. Lyngbye
A. Trillingsgaard
O N Hansen
Author Affiliation
Odense University, Institute of Community Health, Denmark.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1993 May-Jun;15(3):173-81
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Bender-Gestalt Test
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Jaundice, Neonatal - complications - physiopathology - psychology
Lead Poisoning - complications - physiopathology - psychology
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Psychomotor Performance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Wechsler Scales
Abstract
A cohort of children who attended first grade in 1983 was identified in a Danish community with low-level lead pollution. Two groups with high and low postnatal lead exposure were generated on the basis of the dentin-lead concentration in shed deciduous incisors. At age 8 years, examination of 162 children matched according to gender and socioeconomic status had shown lead-related deficits in verbal intelligence and visuomotor coordination. Re-examination was now carried out in 141 children at age 15 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Bender Visual Motor Gestalt, Trail Making, and Visual Gestalts. In general, no lead-related effects could be detected in the group. However, in children with a history of neonatal jaundice, increased lead exposure was associated with mild neurobehavioral deficits, as indicated by lower verbal IQ scores and decreased visuomotor coordination. This finding suggested that moderate neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may have precipitated an increased sensitivity to subsequent exposure to lead.
PubMed ID
8336678 View in PubMed
Less detail

62 records – page 1 of 7.