Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the distal jejunum and ileum derive from serotonin-producing enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Due to their low proliferation rate and their infiltrative growth, they are often discovered at an advanced disease stage when metastasis has already occurred. The biology of these tumours is different from other NEN of the digestive tract. In order to standardise and improve diagnosis and therapy, the guidelines for the diagnosis and clinical management of jejuno-ileal NEN as well as for the management of patients with liver and other distant metastases from NEN were revised by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) in 2012. This review focuses on aspects relevant for surgical pathology.
Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasia. To obtain valid data on epidemiology, diagnostics, therapy, prognosis and risk factors is the aim of the German NET registry.
Data from 2009 histologically proven NET were collected from 35 NET centres between 1999 and 2010. Data collection has been performed prospectively since 2004. Results: Median follow-up was 34.5 months and median age at diagnosis 56.4 years. Primary tumour localisations were pancreas (34.2%), midgut (5.8%), stomach (6.5%), bowel (6.9%), duodenum (4.8%) and neuroendocrine CUP (12.6%). Synchronous metastases were seen in 46% and second malignancies in 12%. From 860 patients, 402 (46.7%) had functional tumours with the following hormone excess syndromes: carcinoid syndrome (19.1%; n = 164), persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (17.7%; n = 152), Zollinger- Ellison syndrome (7.1%; n = 61), glucagonoma (0.7%; n = 15), Verner-Morrison syndrome (0.4%; n = 8) and somatostatinoma syndrome(0.1%; n = 2). Surgical therapy was performed in 78%, therapy with somatostatin receptor analogues(SSA) in 28%, peptide radioreceptor therapy (PRRT) in 19%, chemotherapy in 18% and interferon therapy in 6.5%. Only surgery was done in 47%, whereas 53% received a second therapy. General mortality rate during follow-up was 14.9%. The tumour-specific survival rates for 2, 5 and 10 years were 94, 85 and 70%. The 5-year survival is dependent on the surgical or non-surgical therapy (82 versus 61%, p