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21 records – page 1 of 3.

The anti-smoking climate in EU countries and Poland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19915
Source
Lung Cancer. 2001 Apr;32(1):1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
K. Fagerström
P. Boyle
M. Kunze
W. Zatonski
Author Affiliation
Smokers Information Center, Fagerstrom Consulting, Berga Alle 1, 254 52 Helsingborg, Sweden. karl.fagerstrom@swipnet.se
Source
Lung Cancer. 2001 Apr;32(1):1-5
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attitude
Cause of Death
Comparative Study
European Union
Female
Government
Humans
Interviews
Male
Middle Aged
Poland
Questionnaires
Smoking - adverse effects - mortality - prevention & control - psychology
Smoking Cessation - psychology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the fall of 1998, 9095 smokers above 18 years, were interviewed about their smoking behaviour and knowledge and attitudes relating to the smoking. The survey (S) was conducted for the Cancer Commission of the EU and sponsored by SmithKline Beecham. An anti-smoking thermometer that is intended to assess the anti-smoking climate (ASC) in each EU country plus Poland was created. In doing so country owners of the S were asked to choose and rank the five questions in the S they thought best reflected the ASC. The five questions chosen were--smoking is a major cause of death and disease, want to stop smoking, governments should do more, ever made a serious quit attempt and smoke free areas should be provided. METHOD: The smokers comprised a representative sample of smoking cigarette per day, vis-a-vis age, sex and rural or urban area. Face to face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Poland had the most developed ASC, 368 points, followed closely by Sweden 358. In the bottom were Germany 266 and Austria 258. Large differences were noted on willingness to quit; from the 85% in Sweden to Italy 37%. CONCLUSION: The ASC varies considerably within EU and measures to reduce the death and disease from smoking should be tailored to the situation in each country.
PubMed ID
11282422 View in PubMed
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Are cancers of the salivary gland increasing? Experience from Connecticut, USA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3022
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Apr;26(2):264-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1997
Author
T. Zheng
T R Holford
Y. Chen
B. Ward
W. Liu
J. Flannery
P. Boyle
Author Affiliation
Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Apr;26(2):264-71
Date
Apr-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Cohort Studies
Connecticut - epidemiology
Female
Gingival Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mouth Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Registries
Regression Analysis
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Salivary Gland Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Sex Distribution
Survival Rate
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that cancers of the salivary gland are increasing, and the factors responsible for the increase are unknown. Artefactual changes, such as shift in classifying cancers of the floor of the mouth to cancers of the salivary gland, could affect the time trend for salivary gland cancer. METHODS: The current study examined the time trends for cancers of the salivary gland and for cancers of the floor of the mouth and lower gum by using Connecticut Tumor Registry data for the time period 1935-1992. A regression model was used to identify the components of birth cohort, period and age as determinants of the observed time trend. RESULTS: Cancers of the salivary gland have recently increased in Connecticut, with a relative risk of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.06-2.08) for females in 1990-1992 compared to 1980-1984, and a comparable relative risk of 1.60 (95% CI: 1.16-2.22) for males. The increase was found in all age groups 40 and over, particularly among those aged 70 and over. The results from age-period-cohort modelling show a recent upturn in the trend for period slopes, with no clear increase from recent birth cohorts, which is consistent with the results from univariate analyses suggesting no clear increase among those under 40 years of age. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that artifactual changes, such as a shift in designation of cancer sites, increasing use of the needle aspirate biopsies, and greater access to medical care for the elderly, may have largely contributed to the rising trend. The known risk factors, radiation exposure and a history of a prior cancer, can hardly explain the observed increase. The Epstein-Barr virus infection has only been associated with certain types of rare squamous cell carcinomas of the salivary gland in the Eskimo population. The AIDS epidemic also cannot explain why older age groups have accounted for most of the increase in incidence of the disease. An examination of the incidence rates for cancers of the salivary gland from other populations may help to clarify the issue.
PubMed ID
9169160 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence in cohorts of workers in the rubber manufacturing industry first employed since 1975 in the UK and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283552
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jun;74(6):417-421
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
M. Boniol
A. Koechlin
T. Sorahan
K. Jakobsson
P. Boyle
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jun;74(6):417-421
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Manufacturing Industry
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Poisson Distribution
Rubber - adverse effects
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
United Kingdom - epidemiology
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Increased cancer risks have been reported among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry employed before the 1960s, but it is unclear for workers hired subsequently. The present study focused on cancer incidence among rubber workers first employed after 1975 in Sweden and the UK.
Two cohorts of rubber workers employed for at least 1 year were analysed. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), based on country-specific and period-specific incidence rates, were analysed for all cancers combined (except non-melanoma skin), bladder, lung, stomach cancer, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Exploratory analyses were conducted for other cancers with a minimum of 10 cases in both genders combined.
16 026 individuals (12 441 men; 3585 women) contributed to 397 975 person-years of observation, with 846 cancers observed overall (437 in the UK, 409 in Sweden). No statistically significant increased risk was observed for any site of cancer. A reduced risk was evident for all cancers combined (SIR=0.83, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.92)), lung cancer (SIR=0.74, 95% CI (0.59 to 0.93)), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR=0.67, 95% CI (0.45 to 1.00)) and prostate cancer (SIR=0.77, 95% CI (0.64 to 0.92)). For stomach cancer and multiple myeloma, SIRs were 0.93 (95% CI (0.61 to 1.43)) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.91), respectively. No increased risk of bladder cancer was observed (SIR=0.88, 95% CI (0.61 to 1.28)).
No significantly increased risk of cancer incidence was observed in the combined cohort of rubber workers first employed since 1975. Continued surveillance of the present cohorts is required to confirm absence of long-term risk and confirmatory findings from other cohorts would be important.
PubMed ID
28062833 View in PubMed
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Cancer mortality in Europe: effects of age, cohort of birth and period of death.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21600
Source
Eur J Cancer. 1998 Jan;34(1):118-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1998
Author
C. La Vecchia
E. Negri
F. Levi
A. Decarli
P. Boyle
Author Affiliation
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
Source
Eur J Cancer. 1998 Jan;34(1):118-41
Date
Jan-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - mortality
Cohort Studies
Digestive System Neoplasms - mortality
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Hematologic Neoplasms - mortality
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Skin Neoplasms - mortality
Urologic Neoplasms - mortality
Abstract
Death certification data for 19 cancers or groups of cancers, plus total cancer mortality, in 16 major European countries were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model with arbitrary constraints on the parameters to disentangle the effects of age, birth cohort and period of death. Three major patterns emerged including: first, the prominent role of cohort of birth in defining trends in mortality from most cancer sites (except testis or Hodgkin's disease, where newer treatments had a major period of death effect); and second, the major role of lung and other tobacco-related neoplasm epidemics in determining the diverging pattern of cancer mortality, for each sex and in various European countries and geographic areas. In most countries, the peak male cohort values were reached for generations born between 1900 and 1930. This was observed in women only for Denmark and the U.K., i.e. the two countries where lung and other tobacco-related neoplasm epidemics had already reached appreciable levels. This confirms the importance of cigarette smoking in subsequent generations as a major cause of cancer deaths in Europe. Further, there is a persistent rise in several cancer rates, again chiefly on a cohort basis, in Eastern Europe, which calls for urgent intervention to control the cancer burden in these countries.
PubMed ID
9624248 View in PubMed
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Cancer mortality trends in the EU and acceding countries up to 2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18315
Source
Ann Oncol. 2003 Jul;14(7):1148-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
M J Quinn
A. d'Onofrio
B. Møller
R. Black
C. Martinez-Garcia
H. Møller
M. Rahu
C. Robertson
L J Schouten
C. La Vecchia
P. Boyle
Author Affiliation
National Cancer Intelligence Centre, Office for National Statistics, London, UK. mike.quinn@ons.gsi.gov.uk
Source
Ann Oncol. 2003 Jul;14(7):1148-52
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Forecasting
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Mortality - trends
Neoplasms - mortality
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Examination of trends in cancer mortality in Europe over the past 30 years has shown that, after long-term rises, age-standardised mortality from most common cancer sites has fallen in the EU since the late 1980s. This study aimed to examine trends in the age-specific and age-standardised cancer mortality rates and numbers of cancer deaths up to 2020 for all cancers and various specific sites for all 15 EU countries, the 10 acceding countries, Bulgaria and Romania (currently applicant countries, along with Turkey), and Iceland, Norway and Switzerland of the four EEA countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mortality rates were modelled as a function of age, calendar period and birth cohort. Birth cohort was calculated as age subtracted from calendar period. RESULTS: As a consequence of the generally decreasing trends in the age-standardised rates, the best estimate is that there will be approximately 1.25 million cancer deaths in 2015, which is almost 130,000 (11%) more deaths than in 2000, but 155,000 (11%) fewer deaths than the 1.4 million projected in 2015 on the basis of demographic changes alone. The increases in the forecast numbers of cancer deaths in 2015 are proportionally larger in males than in females (13% and 10%, respectively) and proportionally larger in the acceding countries than in the current EU member countries (14% and 11%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our forecasts are conservative best estimates of future cancer mortality. There is clearly scope for large improvements in survival, and hence reductions in cancer mortality, in some countries, through eliminating these differences using existing knowledge and treatment regimes.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Oncol. 2003 Jul;14(7):97112853335
PubMed ID
12853360 View in PubMed
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Changing mortality from esophageal cancer in males in Denmark and other European countries, in relation to changing levels of alcohol consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12150
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1990 Sep;1(2):181-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1990
Author
H. Møller
P. Boyle
P. Maisonneuve
C. La Vecchia
O M Jensen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Registry, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1990 Sep;1(2):181-8
Date
Sep-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Cohort Effect
Denmark - epidemiology
Esophageal Neoplasms - mortality
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Survival Rate
Abstract
Age-specific mortality rates from esophageal cancer in men are considered by year of birth in European countries with different levels of alcohol consumption. In countries with high and increasing levels of alcohol consumption (Denmark, Hungary, Federal Republic of Germany, and Czechoslovakia) successive birth cohorts born after about 1910 experience increasing mortality from esophageal cancer in all age-groups. No clear trend in esophageal cancer mortality was observed in countries starting from lower levels of alcohol consumption, even in the presence of increasing consumption (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Poland, UK). There was an apparent threshold around 8 l of ethanol per capita per year. Likewise, no upward trend in esophageal cancer mortality was observed in countries with high and stable alcohol consumption (France, Italy, Portugal). These findings are in agreement with results of analytic epidemiologic studies which indicate that esophageal cancer mortality is only slightly affected by moderate doses of alcohol, but rises steeply with consumption of large quantities. The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer is likely to increase further in the future in countries where the level of alcohol consumption was relatively high in 1960 and where consumption increased further in the 1960s and 1970s.
PubMed ID
2102289 View in PubMed
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Comparative descriptive epidemiology of oral and oesophageal cancers in Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11190
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 1996 Aug;5(4):267-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1996
Author
E. Negri
C. La Vecchia
F. Levi
S. Franceschi
L. Serra-Majem
P. Boyle
Author Affiliation
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 1996 Aug;5(4):267-79
Date
Aug-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Comparative Study
Esophageal Neoplasms - mortality
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mouth Neoplasms - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Smoking
Abstract
The two main determinants of oral and oesophageal cancer in Europe are alcohol and tobacco, and the two cancer sites show several similarities in their descriptive epidemiology. This study compares mortality from cancers of the oral cavity and oesophagus in European countries to evaluate similarities and differences. From official death certification numbers and population estimates, we obtained age-standardized rates for all ages and truncated (35-64 years). In most countries, rates for men tended to increase between 1955-59 and 1990-92 for both sites, although the increases were more marked for oral cancer. In the UK and Ireland, however, oral cancer decreased and oesophageal cancer increased, while in Finland and Iceland mortality for both sites decreased. The most striking increases were in Hungary, where the truncated rate in most recent calendar periods reached the highest levels in Europe. In France, rates for both cancers were extremely high: oral cancer increased from 1955-59 to the early 1980s, but started to decline afterwards. Mortality rates were much lower for women than men, and the correlation between the two sites was less marked. An age, period and cohort model, applied to the rates for men in selected European countries, suggested strong cohort effects for both cancers, generally more marked for oral cancer, with substantial increases in the cohorts born after 1920. The mortality rates of cancers of the oral cavity and oesophagus show several analogies, as expected from their relation to tobacco and alcohol; but some discrepancies suggest that other, less well-identified, factors may also influence their rates and trends in Europe.
PubMed ID
8894564 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, medical history, and colon cancer: a case-control study among French Canadians in Montreal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204674
Source
Cancer Detect Prev. 1998;22(5):396-404
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
P. Ghadirian
P. Maisonneuve
C. Perret
A. Lacroix
P. Boyle
Author Affiliation
Research Center, CHUM, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Cancer Detect Prev. 1998;22(5):396-404
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cathartics - pharmacology
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Demography
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Reproductive history
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women in North America and other developed countries. In a population-based case-control study of colon cancer among French Canadians in greater Montreal, a total of 402 cases and 668 controls were interviewed. The cancer cases were identified through the admission offices of five major Francophone teaching hospitals in Montreal from 1989 to 1993. The controls, matched by age, sex, place of residence, and language, were selected by a modified random digit dialing method. The results show that subjects who had ever been married had a lower risk for colon cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.58; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.48-0.84) than did individuals who had never been married. A significant association (OR: 1.90; p for trend = 0.003) was found between the height of subjects and the risk of colon cancer. The OR for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer was 2.78 with a p value of 0.01. A direct and significant association (OR: 2.01) was found among constipation, use of laxatives (OR: 1.41), and the risk of colon cancer. Among women, a suggestive inverse association was detected between the number of full-term pregnancies and the risk of colon cancer in female subjects (the OR for five or more pregnancies was 0.58 with a p for trend of 0.08). There was also a suggestive linear trend (increased age-decreased risk) between age at menarche and the risk of colon cancer. No association was apparent between other sociodemographic characteristics and the risk of colon cancer. In conclusion, married individuals had lower risk for colon cancer, perhaps due to food habits or other characteristics of being single. Higher height and weight history 10 years before the diagnosis of cancer are risk factors for breast cancer, while both current weight and body mass index seem to be protective. Positive family history of colon cancer increased the risk of colon cancer significantly.
PubMed ID
9727620 View in PubMed
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Fats used in seasoning and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Moscow, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220964
Source
Ann Oncol. 1993 Jun;4(6):495-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1993
Author
D. Zaridze
T. Evstifeeva
M. Babaeva
P. Boyle
Author Affiliation
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow.
Source
Ann Oncol. 1993 Jun;4(6):495-8
Date
Jun-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Female
Food
Humans
Middle Aged
Moscow - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
As part of a case-control study of breast cancer conducted in Moscow the relationship between consumption of fat in seasoning and risk of breast cancer was assessed.
The study comprised 92 cases and 110 controls. Cases were newly diagnosed consecutive cases seen at the breast clinic of the Cancer Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences during the year 1990. None of the patients had been previously treated for breast or other cancers and none had distant metastases. Patient were interviewed in the Clinic within two days of admission. Controls were recruited from women visiting their friends and relatives treated in the same Cancer Centre.
Four levels of frequency of use of butter and vegetable oils, and four levels for combined sources were created to evaluate the association between use of fat in seasoning and breast cancer risk. Compared to low use, a non-significant increase in risk was observed for the highest intake of butter (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.8, 3.0)). High frequency of use of vegetable oil in seasoning decreased the risk of breast cancer. For the highest category of use, the adjusted OR was 0.2 (95% CI (0.1, 0.5)). Frequent use of mayonnaise also appeared to be associated with a decrease in the risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.1; 95% CI (0.01, 0.4)). For total fat seasoning consumption (vegetable oil+mayonnaise), the adjusted OR for highest category of intake was 0.1 (95% CI (0.03, 0.3)).
The results of the study suggest a negative association between consumption of fat used for seasoning (except butter) and breast cancer risk. This may be a direct effect or due to increased consumption of salad-type vegetables by high consumers of these sources of fats. The topic should be addressed in other studies in different populations.
PubMed ID
8353092 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.