The significance of insulin receptor gene variants in the aetiology of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has been investigated by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a genetically homogeneous Swedish population. Seven polymorphisms were analysed, spanning functionally important regions of the insulin receptor locus. Four of these polymorphisms were mapped more accurately within the gene compared to previous studies. The genotype distribution was compared in 76 Type 2 diabetic patients and 84 healthy control subjects. No significant differences were found in the distribution of genotypes between diabetic and control subjects at the p less than 0.01 level. In order to study the possible association between quantitative measures of glucose metabolism and these DNA polymorphisms, the fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were compared in the different genotype groups of control subjects and mildly diabetic patients treated with diet. No differences in fasting glucose or insulin concentrations were found at the p less than 0.005 level of significance. In conclusion, no significant associations were found between insulin receptor gene DNA polymorphisms and glucose intolerance.