Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Adipocyte size and number have been suggested to predict the development of metabolic complications in obesity. However, the genetic and environmental determinants behind this phenomenon remain unclear.
We studied this question in rare-weight discordant (intra-pair difference (?) body mass index (BMI) 3-10 kg m(-2), n=15) and concordant (?BMI 0-2 kg m(-)(2), n=5) young adult (22-35 years) monozygotic twin pairs identified from 10 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5 500 pairs). Subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size from surgical biopsies was measured under a light microscope. Adipocyte number was calculated from cell size and total body fat (D ? A).
The concordant pairs were remarkably similar for adipocyte size and number (intra-class correlations 0.91-0.92, P
Cross-sectional studies show that white adipose tissue hypertrophy (few, large adipocytes), in contrast to hyperplasia (many, small adipocytes), associates with insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if baseline adipose cellularity could predict improvements in insulin sensitivity following weight loss.
Plasma samples and subcutaneous abdominal adipose biopsies were examined in 100 overweight or obese individuals before and 10 weeks after a hypocaloric diet (7±3% weight loss) and in 61 obese subjects before and 2 years after gastric by-pass surgery (33±9% weight loss). The degree of adipose tissue hypertrophy or hyperplasia (termed the morphology value) in each individual was calculated on the basis of the relationship between fat cell volume and total fat mass. Insulin sensitivity was determined by homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR).
In both cohorts at baseline, subjects with hypertrophy displayed significantly higher fasting plasma insulin and HOMAIR values than subjects with hyperplasia (P
Proximal chromosome 10q26 was recently linked to waist/hip ratio in European and African-American families. The objective was to investigate whether genomic variation in chromosome 10q26.11 reflects variation in obesity-related clinical parameters in a Swedish population.
Genetic association study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 10q26.11 and obesity-related clinical parameters was performed. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2.
Swedish Caucasians comprising 276 obese and 480 nonobese men, 313 obese and 494 nonobese women, 177 obese and 163 nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 106 obese and 201 nonobese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients.
Genotypes of 11 SNPs at chromosome 10q26.11, and various obesity-related clinical parameters.
Homozygosity of a common haplotype constructed by three SNPs, rs2185937, rs1797 and hCV1402327, covering an interval of 2.7 kb, was suggested to confer an increased risk for obesity of 1.5 among men (P = 0.043). The C allele frequency and homozygous genotype frequency of the rs1797 tended to be higher among obese compared to among nonobese men (P = 0.017 and 0.020, respectively). The distribution of BMI and diastolic blood pressure was higher among those with the C/C genotype (P = 0.022 and 0.0061, respectively). The obese and the nonobese groups were homogeneous over BMI subgroups with regard to rs1797 risk genotype distribution. There was no tendency for association between rs1797 and obesity among neither women nor T2DM nor IGT patients.
We show support for association between proximal chromosome 10q26.11 and obesity among Swedish men but not women through the analysis of a haplotype encompassing 2.7 kb.
The influence of weight reduction and female sex hormones on the regulation of lipolysis was investigated in isolated abdominal sc adipocytes from 20 obese hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Nine PCOS women were reinvestigated after 8-12 weeks of weight reduction therapy (WR) with a very low calorie diet, inducing a mean loss of 8 +/- 3 kg, and 8 PCOS women were reinvestigated after 12 weeks of treatment with combined oral contraceptives (OC), containing ethinyl estradiol and norethisterone; the remaining 3 subjects were drop-outs. Both WR and OC normalized hyperandrogenicity. WR caused a 50% reduction of basal lipolysis rate and a 5- to 7-fold increased noradrenaline and terbutaline sensitivity (P
Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome.
We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m(-2) , 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids.
Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmol L(-1) 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37 ng L(-1) , P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra.
Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.
Obese subjects have increased number of enlarged fat cells that are reduced in size but not in number in post-obesity. We performed DNA methylation profiling in fat cells with the aim of identifying differentially methylated DNA sites (DMS) linked to adipose hyperplasia (many small fat cells) in post-obesity.
Genome-wide DNA methylation was analyzed in abdominal subcutaneous fat cells from 16 women examined 2 years after gastric bypass surgery at a post-obese state (body mass index (BMI) 26±2?kg?m(-2), mean±s.d.) and from 14 never-obese women (BMI 25±2?kg?m(-2)). Gene expression was analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue from nine women in each group. In a secondary analysis, we examined DNA methylation and expression of adipogenesis genes in 15 and 11 obese women, respectively.
The average degree of DNA methylation of all analyzed CpG sites was lower in fat cells from post-obese as compared with never-obese women (P=0.014). A total of 8504 CpG sites were differentially methylated in fat cells from post-obese versus never-obese women (false discovery rate 1%). DMS were under-represented in CpG islands and surrounding shores. The 8504 DMS mapped to 3717 unique genes; these genes were over-represented in cell differentiation pathways. Notably, 27% of the genes linked to adipogenesis (that is, 35 of 130) displayed DMS (adjusted P=10(-8)) in post-obese versus never-obese women. Next, we explored DNA methylation and expression of genes linked to adipogenesis in more detail in adipose tissue samples. DMS annotated to adipogenesis genes were not accompanied by differential gene expression in post-obese compared with never-obese women. In contrast, adipogenesis genes displayed differential DNA methylation accompanied by altered expression in obese women.
Global CpG hypomethylation and over-representation of DMS in adipogenesis genes in fat cells may contribute to adipose hyperplasia in post-obese women.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum leptin, a fat cell-derived protein, levels in relation to the malnutrition often observed in chronic disease. DESIGN: A comparison of circulating leptin concentrations in malnourished chronically ill elderly and in age-matched controls. SETTING: A university-affiliated teaching hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Nineteen protein-energy malnourished elderly patients (74 +/- 1 years) with various chronic nonmalignant diseases and 18 healthy controls (72 +/- 1 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum leptin levels measured by radioimmunoassay technique, nutritional status as expressed by body mass index (kg m[-2]), triceps skin fold, arm muscle circumference and serum albumin, and serum orosomucoid concentrations indicating inflammatory status. RESULTS: Patients and controls displayed body mass indexes of 17.4 +/- 0.7 and 25.0 +/- 1.1 (P
Insulin resistance and secretory defects seem to be present in Swedish obese elderly, NIDDM subjects. A defect in insulin secretion seems to dominate in lean elderly male Swedish subjects with NIDDM. Furthermore, TNF alpha expression and secretion are increased in adipose tissue from obese subjects and correlates with insulin resistance roughly measured as elevated fasting plasma insulin in spite of normal fasting blood glucose.