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10-year trends of educational differences in long sickness absence due to mental disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285500
Source
J Occup Health. 2017 Jul 27;59(4):352-355
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-27-2017
Author
Hilla Sumanen
Olli Pietiläinen
Eero Lahelma
Ossi Rahkonen
Source
J Occup Health. 2017 Jul 27;59(4):352-355
Date
Jul-27-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Education - classification - statistics & numerical data
Employment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - psychology
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Mental disorders are a key cause of sickness absence (SA) and challenge prolonging working careers. Thus, evidence on the development of SA trends is needed. In this study, educational differences in long SAs due to mental disorders were examined in two age groups among employees of the City of Helsinki from 2004 to 2013.
All permanently and temporarily employed staff aged 18-34 and 35-49 were included in the analyses (n=~27800 per year). SA spells of =14 days due to mental disorders were examined annually. Education was classified to higher and lower levels. Joinpoint regression was used to identify major turning points in SA trends.
Joinpoint regression models showed that lower educated groups had more long SAs spells due to mental disorders than those groups with higher education. SA trends decreased during the study period in all studied age and educational groups. Lower educated age groups had similar SA trends. Younger employees with higher education had the fewest SAs.
A clear educational gradient was found in long SAs due to mental disorders during the study period. SA trends decreased from 2004 to 2013.
Notes
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Cites: Eur J Public Health. 2010 Jun;20(3):276-8019843600
Cites: J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jan;59(1):114-11928045805
PubMed ID
28496028 View in PubMed
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A 26-year follow-up study of heavy drinking trajectories from adolescence to mid-adulthood and adult disadvantage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115198
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2013 Jul-Aug;48(4):452-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Noora Berg
Olli Kiviruusu
Sakari Karvonen
Laura Kestilä
Tomi Lintonen
Ossi Rahkonen
Taina Huurre
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. noora.berg@thl.fi
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2013 Jul-Aug;48(4):452-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Male
Sex Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify heavy drinking trajectories from age 16 to 42 years and to examine their associations with health, social, employment and economic disadvantage in mid-adulthood.
Finnish cohort study's participants who were 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at age 22, 32 and 42 (n = 1334). Heavy drinking was assessed at every study phase and based on these measurements trajectories of heavy drinking were identified. The trajectory groups were then examined as predictors of disadvantage at age 42.
Five distinct heavy drinking trajectories were identified: moderate (35%), steady low (22%), decreasing (9%), increasing (11%) and steady high (23%). Frequencies of the trajectory groups differed by gender. Using the moderate trajectory as a reference category, women in the steady high trajectory had an increased risk of experiencing almost all disadvantages at age 42. In men, increasing and steady high groups had an increased risk for experiencing health and economic disadvantage.
Steady high female drinkers and steady high and increasing male drinkers had the highest risk for disadvantage in mid-adulthood. By identifying heavy drinking trajectories from adolescence to mid-adulthood we can better predict long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use and plan prevention and intervention programmes.
PubMed ID
23531717 View in PubMed
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Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52241
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2002 Aug;55(4):609-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Eero Lahelma
Katariina Kivelä
Eva Roos
Terhi Tuominen
Espen Dahl
Finn Diderichsen
Jon Ivar Elstad
Inge Lissau
Olle Lundberg
Ossi Rahkonen
Niels Kristian Rasmussen
Monica Aberg Yngwe
Author Affiliation
Department Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. eero.lahelma@helsinki.fi
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2002 Aug;55(4):609-25
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Norway - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time
Abstract
This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural'development influenced health inequalities by employment status and educational attainment, i.e. whether the trends in health inequalities were similar or dissimilar between the Nordic countries. The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1986/87 and 1994/95 in the four countries. Limiting long-standing illness and perceived health were analysed by age, gender, employment status and educational attainment. First, age-adjusted overall prevalence percentages were calculated. Second, changes in the magnitude of relative health inequalities were studied using logistic regression analysis. Within each country the prevalence of ill-health remained at a similar level, with Finns having the poorest health. Analysing all countries together health inequalities by employment status and education showed no major changes. There were slightly different tendencies among men and women in inequalities by both health indicators, although these did not reach statistical significance. Among men there was a suggestion of narrowing health inequalities, whereas among women such a suggestion could not be discerned. Looking at particular countries some small changes in men's as well as women's health inequalities could be found. Over a period of deep economic recession and a large increase in unemployment, particularly in Finland and Sweden, health inequalities by employment status and education remained broadly unchanged in all Nordic countries. Thus, during this fairly short period health inequalities in these countries were not strongly influenced by changes in other structural inequalities, in particular labour market inequalities. Institutional arrangements in the Nordic welfare states, including social benefits and services, were cut during the recession but nevertheless broadly remained, and are likely to have buffered against the structural pressures towards widening health inequalities.
PubMed ID
12188467 View in PubMed
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Angina pectoris: relation of epidemiological survey to registry data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135757
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011 Aug;18(4):621-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Tea Lallukka
Kristiina Manderbacka
Ilmo Keskimäki
Harry Hemingway
Ossi Rahkonen
Eero Lahelma
Reunanen Antti
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. tea.lallukka@helsinki.fi
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011 Aug;18(4):621-6
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Angina Pectoris - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Agents - economics
Coronary Disease - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Drug Costs - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Insurance, Health, Reimbursement - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Questionnaires
ROC Curve
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Self Report
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Self-reported angina symptoms are collected in epidemiological surveys. We aimed at validating the angina symptoms assessed by the Rose Questionnaire against registry data on coronary heart disease. A further aim was to examine the sex paradox in angina implying that women report more symptoms, whereas men have more coronary events.
Angina symptoms of 6601 employees of the City of Helsinki were examined using the postal questionnaire survey data combined with coronary heart disease registries.
The self-reported angina was classified as no symptoms, atypical pain, exertional chest pain, and stable angina symptoms. Reimbursed medications and hospital admissions were available from registries 10 years before the survey. Binomial regression analysis was used.
Stable angina symptoms were associated with hospital admissions and reimbursed medications [prevalence ratio (PR), 6.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.56-9.99]. In addition, exertional chest pain (PR, 5.31; 95% CI, 3.45-8.18) was associated with coronary events. All events were more prevalent among men than women (PR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.72-3.25).
The Rose Questionnaire remains a valid tool to distinguish healthy people from those with coronary heart disease. However, a notable part of those reporting symptoms have no confirmation of coronary heart disease in the registries. The female excess of symptoms and male excess of events may reflect inequality or delay in access to treatment, problems in identification and diagnosis, or more complex issues related to self-reported angina symptoms.
PubMed ID
21450561 View in PubMed
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The association between social determinants and drunken driving: a 15-year register-based study of 81,125 suspects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133324
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 Nov-Dec;46(6):721-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Antti Impinen
Pia Mäkelä
Karoliina Karjalainen
Jari Haukka
Tomi Lintonen
Pirjo Lillsunde
Ossi Rahkonen
Aini Ostamo
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. antti.impinen@thl.fi
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2011 Nov-Dec;46(6):721-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Public Health
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine the association between social background and drunken driving.
A Finnish register on suspected drunken driving was combined with data on social background. There were 81,125 drivers arrested for drunken driving and 86,279 references from 1993 to 2007.
A low level of education, unemployment, living alone and divorce were strongly associated with drunken driving. In addition, for persons aged 15-24 years, low parental education and income, high own income and possession of a car correlated with higher odds of drunken driving. For working-aged men and women, low income was associated with a higher risk of drunken driving. For working-aged women, also possession of a car was a risk factor.
Social factors are associated with drunken driving. In general, people with a lower social position are more prone to drive after drinking. Social differences are visible already in youth, whereas working and own income of young persons signal different risk mechanisms for youth than for working-aged people. Measures for preventing drunken driving are needed within public health policies.
PubMed ID
21715414 View in PubMed
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Association of smoking status with obesity and diabetes among elderly people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166276
Source
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007 Sep-Oct;45(2):159-67
Publication Type
Article
Author
Tommi Sulander
Ossi Rahkonen
Aulikki Nissinen
Antti Uutela
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. tommi.sulander@ktl.fi
Source
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007 Sep-Oct;45(2):159-67
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Smoking Cessation
Abstract
The present study was aimed to examine associations of current and ex-smoking status with obesity and diabetes among elderly people. Nationwide study of Finnish elderly people based on biennial surveys from 1985 to 1995, were used to study 7482 people aged 65-79 years. Smoking status included non-, ex-light, ex-heavy, current light, and current heavy smokers. Obesity was set as body mass index (BMI) > or = 30. Information of smoking, BMI, and diabetes was based on self-reports. Logistic regression was used as the main method of analyses. Compared to non-smokers (reference category), ex-heavy smokers had higher (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.85) and current light smokers (OR, 0.46; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.69) lower relative risk of obesity. Current light smokers had also lower and ex-heavy smokers higher rate of diabetes than non-smokers. Ex-heavy smokers had a higher risk of obesity (OR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.30, 2.36) and diabetes (OR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.01) than ex-light smokers. Same pattern for current smokers was found. Heavy ex- and current elderly smokers are at risk of obesity and diabetes. Thus, heavy smokers should be emphasized in programs promoting smoking cessation.
PubMed ID
17141889 View in PubMed
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The associations between psychosocial working conditions and changes in common mental disorders: a follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265965
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:588
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Hanna Laine
Peppiina Saastamoinen
Jouni Lahti
Ossi Rahkonen
Eero Lahelma
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:588
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aging
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Occupational Health Services
Questionnaires
Retirement
Socioeconomic Factors
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period.
The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001-2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N?=?4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors.
Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD.
Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24916716 View in PubMed
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Associations of childhood circumstances with physical and mental functioning in adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172653
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Apr;62(8):1831-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Tomi Mäkinen
Mikko Laaksonen
Eero Lahelma
Ossi Rahkonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. tomi.makinen@helsinki.fi
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Apr;62(8):1831-9
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Child
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental education and specific childhood circumstances with adult physical and mental functioning. Self-reported data were collected in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among middle-aged women (n=7,171) and men (n=1,799) employed by the City of Helsinki. Functioning was measured by the physical and mental component summaries of the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). The lowest quartile of the scores on each component summary was considered to indicate limited functioning. Adult socio-economic circumstances were measured by their own education. Among women parental education was inversely associated with physical functioning. The association remained after adjusting for specific childhood circumstances but disappeared after adjustment for own education. In contrast, parental education was positively associated with mental functioning among women, and the association remained after adjusting for specific childhood circumstances and the own education. Among women childhood adversities such as own chronic disease, parental mental problems, economic difficulties and having been bullied in childhood were associated with both physical and mental functioning. Parental drinking problems were associated with adult mental functioning among women. Among men, chronic disease, economic difficulties and having been bullied in childhood were associated with physical functioning. Parental mental problems, economic difficulties and having being bullied in childhood were also associated with mental functioning among men. These results suggest that the effect of parental education on physical functioning is mediated through one's own education. The association between parental education and mental functioning and the effects of several specific childhood circumstances may suggest a latency effect. Some evidence of cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood circumstances were found among women in physical functioning. Specific childhood circumstances are therefore important determinants of adult functioning. These circumstances provide detailed information on the association of childhood circumstances with adult functioning over and above parental education.
PubMed ID
16194591 View in PubMed
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The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142429
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2010 Sep;71(5):1018-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Akseli Aittomäki
Pekka Martikainen
Mikko Laaksonen
Eero Lahelma
Ossi Rahkonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 41, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Helsinki, Finland. akseli.attomaki@helsinki.fi
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2010 Sep;71(5):1018-26
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Abstract
The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health.
PubMed ID
20598791 View in PubMed
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Associations of multiple socio-economic circumstances with physical functioning among Finnish and British employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153859
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2009 Jan;19(1):38-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Elina Laaksonen
Pekka Martikainen
Jenny Head
Ossi Rahkonen
Michael G Marmot
Eero Lahelma
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. elina.laaksonen@helsinki.fi
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2009 Jan;19(1):38-45
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disabled Persons
Employment
Female
Finland
Great Britain
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Social Class
Abstract
To further increase our understanding of socio-economic health inequalities, we need studies considering multiple socio-economic circumstances and comparing different cultural contexts. This study compared the associations of past and present socio-economic circumstances with physical functioning between employees from Finland and Britain.
Cross-sectional survey data from the Helsinki Health Study (n = 5866) and the Whitehall II Study (n = 3052) were used. Participants were white-collar public sector employees aged 45-60 years. Physical functioning was measured with the SF-36 physical component summary. The socio-economic indicators were parental and own education, childhood and current economic difficulties, occupational class, income, housing tenure.
Childhood and current economic difficulties were independently associated with physical functioning in both cohorts, although in London women childhood difficulties did not reach statistical significance. Own education was independently associated with physical functioning in Helsinki. Occupational class showed associations with physical functioning in both cohorts. These were mainly attenuated by education and income, but in London women there was a strong independent association. The association of income with physical functioning was attenuated by education (Helsinki) and occupational class (London). Parental education and housing tenure showed no consistent associations.
Past and present economic difficulties were independently associated with physical functioning. The conventional socio-economic indicators showed less consistent associations which were partly mediated through other indicators and modified by the national context. The associations that varied according to the indicators and between the cohorts highlight the importance of considering the multiplicity of socio-economic circumstances and comparing different cultural contexts in further studies.
Notes
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