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1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
Less detail

An adult-based insulin resistance genetic risk score associates with insulin resistance, metabolic traits and altered fat distribution in Danish children and adolescents who are overweight or obese.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297400
Source
Diabetologia. 2018 08; 61(8):1769-1779
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2018
Author
Anne-Sofie Graae
Mette Hollensted
Julie T Kloppenborg
Yuvaraj Mahendran
Theresia M Schnurr
Emil Vincent R Appel
Johanne Rask
Tenna R H Nielsen
Mia Ø Johansen
Allan Linneberg
Marit E Jørgensen
Niels Grarup
Haja N Kadarmideen
Birgitte Holst
Oluf Pedersen
Jens-Christian Holm
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
Section for Metabolic Receptology, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Diabetologia. 2018 08; 61(8):1769-1779
Date
08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry
Body Composition
Child
Cholesterol, HDL - metabolism
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Linear Models
Metabolic Syndrome - metabolism
Middle Aged
Overweight - genetics
Pediatric Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
Risk
Abstract
A genetic risk score (GRS) consisting of 53 insulin resistance variants (GRS53) was recently demonstrated to associate with insulin resistance in adults. We speculated that the GRS53 might already associate with insulin resistance during childhood, and we therefore aimed to investigate this in populations of Danish children and adolescents. Furthermore, we aimed to address whether the GRS associates with components of the metabolic syndrome and altered body composition in children and adolescents.
We examined a total of 689 children and adolescents who were overweight or obese and 675 children and adolescents from a population-based study. Anthropometric data, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, BP, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma lipid measurements were obtained, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The GRS53 was examined for association with metabolic traits in children by linear regressions using an additive genetic model.
In overweight/obese children and adolescents, the GRS53 associated with higher HOMA-IR (ß?=?0.109?±?0.050 (SE); p?=?2.73?×?10-2), fasting plasma glucose (ß?=?0.010?±?0.005 mmol/l; p?=?2.51?×?10-2) and systolic BP SD score (ß?=?0.026?±?0.012; p?=?3.32?×?10-2) as well as lower HDL-cholesterol (ß?=?-0.008?±?0.003 mmol/l; p?=?1.23?×?10-3), total fat-mass percentage (ß?=?-0.143?±?0.054%; p?=?9.15?×?10-3) and fat-mass percentage in the legs (ß?=?-0.197?±?0.055%; p?=?4.09?×?10-4). In the population-based sample of children, the GRS53 only associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ß?=?-0.007?±?0.003 mmol/l; p?=?1.79?×?10-2).
An adult-based GRS comprising 53 insulin resistance susceptibility SNPs associates with insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome and altered fat distribution in a sample of Danish children and adolescents who were overweight or obese.
PubMed ID
29855666 View in PubMed
Less detail

The association of alcohol and alcohol metabolizing gene variants with diabetes and coronary heart disease risk factors in a white population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99267
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(8)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Lise Lotte N Husemoen
Torben Jørgensen
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Torben Hansen
Oluf Pedersen
Allan Linneberg
Author Affiliation
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup, Denmark. lloh@glo.regionh.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(8)
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown a J- or U-shaped relation between alcohol and type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). The underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim was to examine the association between alcohol intake and diabetes and intermediate CHD risk factors in relation to selected ADH and ALDH gene variants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study including 6,405 Northern European men and women aged 30-60 years from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires, a physical examination, a 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test, and various blood tests. J shaped associations were observed between alcohol and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MS), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and total homocysteine. Positive associations were observed with insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol, and a negative association with insulin release. Only a few of the selected ADH and ALDH gene variants was observed to have an effect. The ADH1c (rs1693482) fast metabolizing CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/diabetes compared to the CT and TT genotypes. Significant interactions were observed between alcohol and ADH1b (rs1229984) with respect to LDL and between alcohol and ALDH2 (rs886205) with respect to IGT/diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The selected ADH and ALDH gene variants had only minor effects, and did not seem to markedly modify the health effects of alcohol drinking. The observed statistical significant associations would not be significant, if corrected for multiple testing.
PubMed ID
20700531 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137422
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e15745
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Sofia I Iqbal Kring
John Barefoot
Beverly H Brummett
Stephen H Boyle
Ilene C Siegler
Søren Toubro
Torben Hansen
Arne Astrup
Oluf Pedersen
Redford B Williams
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark. si@ipm.regionh.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e15745
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Apolipoproteins E - genetics
Blood glucose
Body Weights and Measures
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Genome-Wide Association Study - methods
Genotype
Humans
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Male
Metabolism - genetics
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - genetics
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.
Obese young men (n = 475, BMI = 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected control group (n = 709) identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years) where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR) of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.
The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17]), waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17]) in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87]), serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91]) and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08]) in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41]) and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I); OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85]) in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.
The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401 TT-genotype is associated with an adverse metabolic profile in a population of psychologically stressed Danish men.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21283811 View in PubMed
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Associations of the Inflammatory Marker YKL-40 with Measures of Obesity and Dyslipidaemia in Individuals at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272533
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133672
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Stine B Thomsen
Anette P Gjesing
Camilla N Rathcke
Claus T Ekstrøm
Hans Eiberg
Torben Hansen
Oluf Pedersen
Henrik Vestergaard
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133672
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipokines - blood
Adult
Anthropometry
Biomarkers - blood
Comorbidity
Denmark
Diabetes Complications - diagnosis
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis
Dyslipidemias - metabolism
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Glucose Tolerance Test
Homeostasis
Humans
Inflammation
Insulin Resistance
Lectins - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - metabolism
Risk factors
Triglycerides - blood
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Circulating levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 are elevated in cardiovascular disease and obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D), and serum YKL-40 levels are related to elements of dyslipidaemia.
We aimed to investigate the associations between serum YKL-40 and obesity-related traits in a Danish sample of non-diabetic relatives to T2D patients and, furthermore, to estimate the heritability of YKL-40.
324 non-diabetic individuals with family relation to a T2D patient were included in the study. The participants underwent oral- and intravenous glucose tolerance tests for estimation of glucose tolerance and surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity. Anthropometric measures were retrieved and biochemical measures of the plasma lipid profile and serum YKL-40 levels were obtained. Association-analyses between serum YKL-40 and obesity-related traits and estimates of the narrow sense heritability of YKL-40 were based on a polygenic variance component model.
Fasting serum levels of YKL-40 were positively associated with waist-hip-ratio (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
26197239 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bioinformatics-driven identification and examination of candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136831
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16542
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Karina Banasik
Johanne M Justesen
Malene Hornbak
Nikolaj T Krarup
Anette P Gjesing
Camilla H Sandholt
Thomas S Jensen
Niels Grarup
Asa Andersson
Torben Jørgensen
Daniel R Witte
Annelli Sandbæk
Torsten Lauritzen
Bernard Thorens
Søren Brunak
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark. kabs@hagedorn.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16542
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Computational Biology - methods
Data Mining
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Fatty Liver - genetics
Humans
Metabolic Syndrome X - genetics
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Protein Binding
Quantitative Trait Loci
Abstract
Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes.
By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein-protein interaction transferal, and information on liver protein expression a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and from this a smaller isolated interactome was identified. Five genes from this interactome were selected for genetic analysis. Twenty-one tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which captured all common variation in these genes were genotyped in 10,196 Danes, and analyzed for association with NAFLD-related quantitative traits, type 2 diabetes (T2D), central obesity, and WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS).
273 genes were included in the protein-protein interaction analysis and EHHADH, ECHS1, HADHA, HADHB, and ACADL were selected for further examination. A total of 10 nominal statistical significant associations (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
21339799 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116096
Source
Biol Psychol. 2013 Apr;93(1):184-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Rong Jiang
Beverly H Brummett
Elizabeth R Hauser
Michael A Babyak
Ilene C Siegler
Abanish Singh
Arne Astrup
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Claus Holst
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Redford B Williams
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, USA. rong.jiang@duke.edu
Source
Biol Psychol. 2013 Apr;93(1):184-9
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alleles
Caregivers - psychology
Denmark
Endophenotypes
European Continental Ancestry Group
Family - psychology
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Association Studies
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Male
Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Stress, Psychological - blood - genetics - psychology
Triglycerides - blood
United States
Abstract
TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23435269 View in PubMed
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A combined analysis of 48 type 2 diabetes genetic risk variants shows no discriminative value to predict time to first prescription of a glucose lowering drug in Danish patients with screen detected type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262700
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104837
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Malene Hornbak
Kristine Højgaard Allin
Majken Linnemann Jensen
Cathrine Juel Lau
Daniel Witte
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Annelli Sandbæk
Torsten Lauritzen
Ã?sa Andersson
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104837
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy - epidemiology - genetics - pathology
Disease Progression
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Insulin-Secreting Cells - metabolism - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Abstract
To investigate the genetic influence of 48 type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on disease progression measured as risk of early prescription redemption of glucose lowering drugs in screen-detected patients with type 2 diabetes.
We studied type 2 diabetes progression in 1,480 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-Denmark study using information of redeemed prescriptions from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics from 2001-2009 in Denmark. Patients were cluster randomized by general practitioners, who were randomized to treat type 2 diabetes according to either a conventional or a multifactorial intensive treatment algorithm. We investigated the genetic influence on diabetes progression by constructing a genetic risk score (GRS) of all 48 validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, a GRS of 11 variants linked to Ã?-cell function and a GRS of 3 variants linked to insulin sensitivity and assessed the association between number of risk alleles and time from diagnosis until first redeemed prescription of either any glucose lowering drug or an insulin drug.
The GRS linked to insulin sensitivity only nominally increased the risk of an early prescription redemption with an insulin drug by 39% (HR [95% C.I.]?=?1.39 [1.09-1.77], p?=?0.009] in patients randomized to the intensive treatment group. Furthermore, the strongest univariate predictors of diabetes progression for the intensive treatment group (measured as time to first insulin) were younger age (HR [95% C.I.]?=?0.96 [0.93-0.99]), increased BMI (1.05 [1.01-1.09]), increased HbA1c (1.50 [1.36-.66]), increased TG (1.24 [1.11-1.39]) and reduced fasting serum HDL (0.37 [0.17-0.80]) at baseline. Similar results were obtained for the conventional treatment group.
Higher levels of HbA1c, fasting circulating levels of triglyceride, lower HDL, larger BMI and younger age are significant determinants of early pharmacological intervention in type 2 diabetes. However, known common type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants do not appear to significantly affect disease progression.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25157406 View in PubMed
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A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102987
Source
Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):190-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-14-2014
Author
Ida Moltke
Niels Grarup
Marit E Jørgensen
Peter Bjerregaard
Jonas T Treebak
Matteo Fumagalli
Thorfinn S Korneliussen
Marianne A Andersen
Thomas S Nielsen
Nikolaj T Krarup
Anette P Gjesing
Juleen R Zierath
Allan Linneberg
Xueli Wu
Guangqing Sun
Xin Jin
Jumana Al-Aama
Jun Wang
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Oluf Pedersen
Rasmus Nielsen
Anders Albrechtsen
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [3].
Source
Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):190-3
Date
Aug-14-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Codon, Nonsense - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
GTPase-Activating Proteins - genetics
Gene Frequency
Genetic Variation
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genotype
Greenland
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism
Abstract
The Greenlandic population, a small and historically isolated founder population comprising about 57,000 inhabitants, has experienced a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the past 25 years. Motivated by this, we performed association mapping of T2D-related quantitative traits in up to 2,575 Greenlandic individuals without known diabetes. Using array-based genotyping and exome sequencing, we discovered a nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant (in which arginine is replaced by a termination codon) in the gene TBC1D4 with an allele frequency of 17%. Here we show that homozygous carriers of this variant have markedly higher concentrations of plasma glucose (ß = 3.8?mmol?l(-1), P = 2.5?×?10(-35)) and serum insulin (ß = 165?pmol?l(-1), P = 1.5?×?10(-20)) 2 hours after an oral glucose load compared with individuals with other genotypes (both non-carriers and heterozygous carriers). Furthermore, homozygous carriers have marginally lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (ß = -0.18 mmol?l(-1), P = 1.1?×?10(-6)) and fasting serum insulin (ß = -8.3?pmol?l(-1), P = 0.0014), and their T2D risk is markedly increased (odds ratio (OR) = 10.3, P = 1.6?×?10(-24)). Heterozygous carriers have a moderately higher plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load than non-carriers (ß = 0.43?mmol?l(-1), P = 5.3?×?10(-5)). Analyses of skeletal muscle biopsies showed lower messenger RNA and protein levels of the long isoform of TBC1D4, and lower muscle protein levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4, with increasing number of p.Arg684Ter alleles. These findings are concomitant with a severely decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of conducting genetic association studies outside the traditional setting of large homogeneous populations.
PubMed ID
25043022 View in PubMed
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