This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Cites: Child Obes. 2012 Dec;8(6):533-4123181919
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Aug;6(3-4):188-9621529264
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):40-523828099
A genetic risk score (GRS) consisting of 53 insulin resistance variants (GRS53) was recently demonstrated to associate with insulin resistance in adults. We speculated that the GRS53 might already associate with insulin resistance during childhood, and we therefore aimed to investigate this in populations of Danish children and adolescents. Furthermore, we aimed to address whether the GRS associates with components of the metabolic syndrome and altered body composition in children and adolescents.
We examined a total of 689 children and adolescents who were overweight or obese and 675 children and adolescents from a population-based study. Anthropometric data, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, BP, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma lipid measurements were obtained, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The GRS53 was examined for association with metabolic traits in children by linear regressions using an additive genetic model.
In overweight/obese children and adolescents, the GRS53 associated with higher HOMA-IR (ß?=?0.109?±?0.050 (SE); p?=?2.73?×?10-2), fasting plasma glucose (ß?=?0.010?±?0.005 mmol/l; p?=?2.51?×?10-2) and systolic BP SD score (ß?=?0.026?±?0.012; p?=?3.32?×?10-2) as well as lower HDL-cholesterol (ß?=?-0.008?±?0.003 mmol/l; p?=?1.23?×?10-3), total fat-mass percentage (ß?=?-0.143?±?0.054%; p?=?9.15?×?10-3) and fat-mass percentage in the legs (ß?=?-0.197?±?0.055%; p?=?4.09?×?10-4). In the population-based sample of children, the GRS53 only associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ß?=?-0.007?±?0.003 mmol/l; p?=?1.79?×?10-2).
An adult-based GRS comprising 53 insulin resistance susceptibility SNPs associates with insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome and altered fat distribution in a sample of Danish children and adolescents who were overweight or obese.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown a J- or U-shaped relation between alcohol and type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). The underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim was to examine the association between alcohol intake and diabetes and intermediate CHD risk factors in relation to selected ADH and ALDH gene variants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study including 6,405 Northern European men and women aged 30-60 years from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires, a physical examination, a 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test, and various blood tests. J shaped associations were observed between alcohol and diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MS), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and total homocysteine. Positive associations were observed with insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol, and a negative association with insulin release. Only a few of the selected ADH and ALDH gene variants was observed to have an effect. The ADH1c (rs1693482) fast metabolizing CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/diabetes compared to the CT and TT genotypes. Significant interactions were observed between alcohol and ADH1b (rs1229984) with respect to LDL and between alcohol and ALDH2 (rs886205) with respect to IGT/diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The selected ADH and ALDH gene variants had only minor effects, and did not seem to markedly modify the health effects of alcohol drinking. The observed statistical significant associations would not be significant, if corrected for multiple testing.
In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.
Obese young men (n = 475, BMI = 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected control group (n = 709) identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years) where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR) of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.
The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17]), waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17]) in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87]), serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91]) and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08]) in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41]) and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I); OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85]) in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.
The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401 TT-genotype is associated with an adverse metabolic profile in a population of psychologically stressed Danish men.
Circulating levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 are elevated in cardiovascular disease and obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D), and serum YKL-40 levels are related to elements of dyslipidaemia.
We aimed to investigate the associations between serum YKL-40 and obesity-related traits in a Danish sample of non-diabetic relatives to T2D patients and, furthermore, to estimate the heritability of YKL-40.
324 non-diabetic individuals with family relation to a T2D patient were included in the study. The participants underwent oral- and intravenous glucose tolerance tests for estimation of glucose tolerance and surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity. Anthropometric measures were retrieved and biochemical measures of the plasma lipid profile and serum YKL-40 levels were obtained. Association-analyses between serum YKL-40 and obesity-related traits and estimates of the narrow sense heritability of YKL-40 were based on a polygenic variance component model.
Fasting serum levels of YKL-40 were positively associated with waist-hip-ratio (p
Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes.
By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein-protein interaction transferal, and information on liver protein expression a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and from this a smaller isolated interactome was identified. Five genes from this interactome were selected for genetic analysis. Twenty-one tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which captured all common variation in these genes were genotyped in 10,196 Danes, and analyzed for association with NAFLD-related quantitative traits, type 2 diabetes (T2D), central obesity, and WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS).
273 genes were included in the protein-protein interaction analysis and EHHADH, ECHS1, HADHA, HADHB, and ACADL were selected for further examination. A total of 10 nominal statistical significant associations (P
TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention.
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Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):490-911226981
A combined analysis of 48 type 2 diabetes genetic risk variants shows no discriminative value to predict time to first prescription of a glucose lowering drug in Danish patients with screen detected type 2 diabetes.
To investigate the genetic influence of 48 type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on disease progression measured as risk of early prescription redemption of glucose lowering drugs in screen-detected patients with type 2 diabetes.
We studied type 2 diabetes progression in 1,480 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-Denmark study using information of redeemed prescriptions from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics from 2001-2009 in Denmark. Patients were cluster randomized by general practitioners, who were randomized to treat type 2 diabetes according to either a conventional or a multifactorial intensive treatment algorithm. We investigated the genetic influence on diabetes progression by constructing a genetic risk score (GRS) of all 48 validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, a GRS of 11 variants linked to Ã?-cell function and a GRS of 3 variants linked to insulin sensitivity and assessed the association between number of risk alleles and time from diagnosis until first redeemed prescription of either any glucose lowering drug or an insulin drug.
The GRS linked to insulin sensitivity only nominally increased the risk of an early prescription redemption with an insulin drug by 39% (HR [95% C.I.]?=?1.39 [1.09-1.77], p?=?0.009] in patients randomized to the intensive treatment group. Furthermore, the strongest univariate predictors of diabetes progression for the intensive treatment group (measured as time to first insulin) were younger age (HR [95% C.I.]?=?0.96 [0.93-0.99]), increased BMI (1.05 [1.01-1.09]), increased HbA1c (1.50 [1.36-.66]), increased TG (1.24 [1.11-1.39]) and reduced fasting serum HDL (0.37 [0.17-0.80]) at baseline. Similar results were obtained for the conventional treatment group.
Higher levels of HbA1c, fasting circulating levels of triglyceride, lower HDL, larger BMI and younger age are significant determinants of early pharmacological intervention in type 2 diabetes. However, known common type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants do not appear to significantly affect disease progression.
The Greenlandic population, a small and historically isolated founder population comprising about 57,000 inhabitants, has experienced a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the past 25 years. Motivated by this, we performed association mapping of T2D-related quantitative traits in up to 2,575 Greenlandic individuals without known diabetes. Using array-based genotyping and exome sequencing, we discovered a nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant (in which arginine is replaced by a termination codon) in the gene TBC1D4 with an allele frequency of 17%. Here we show that homozygous carriers of this variant have markedly higher concentrations of plasma glucose (ß = 3.8?mmol?l(-1), P = 2.5?×?10(-35)) and serum insulin (ß = 165?pmol?l(-1), P = 1.5?×?10(-20)) 2 hours after an oral glucose load compared with individuals with other genotypes (both non-carriers and heterozygous carriers). Furthermore, homozygous carriers have marginally lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (ß = -0.18 mmol?l(-1), P = 1.1?×?10(-6)) and fasting serum insulin (ß = -8.3?pmol?l(-1), P = 0.0014), and their T2D risk is markedly increased (odds ratio (OR) = 10.3, P = 1.6?×?10(-24)). Heterozygous carriers have a moderately higher plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load than non-carriers (ß = 0.43?mmol?l(-1), P = 5.3?×?10(-5)). Analyses of skeletal muscle biopsies showed lower messenger RNA and protein levels of the long isoform of TBC1D4, and lower muscle protein levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4, with increasing number of p.Arg684Ter alleles. These findings are concomitant with a severely decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of conducting genetic association studies outside the traditional setting of large homogeneous populations.