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A joint, multilateral approach to improve compliance with hand hygiene in 4 countries within the Baltic region using the World Health Organization's SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287678
Source
Am J Infect Control. 2016 Nov 01;44(11):1208-1213
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-01-2016
Author
Birgitta Lytsy
Agita Melbarde-Kelmere
Anna Hambraeus
Anna Liubimova
Olov Aspevall
Source
Am J Infect Control. 2016 Nov 01;44(11):1208-1213
Date
Nov-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross Infection - prevention & control
Education, Medical - methods
Guideline Adherence
Hand Hygiene - methods
Health Personnel
Humans
Latvia
Lithuania
Prospective Studies
Russia
Sweden
Abstract
The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to explore the usefulness of a modified World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene program to increase compliance with hand hygiene among health care workers (HCWs) in Latvia, Lithuania, Saint Petersburg (Russia), and Sweden and to provide a basis for continuing promotion of hand hygiene in these countries. The study was carried out in 2012. Thirteen hospitals participated, including 38 wards.
Outcome data were handrub consumption, compliance with hand hygiene measured with a modified WHO method, and assessment of knowledge among HCWs. Interventions were education of the nursing staff, posters and reminders in strategic places in the wards, and feedback of the results to nursing staff in ward meetings.
Feedback of results was an effective tool for education at the ward level. The most useful outcome measurement was handrub consumption, which increased by at least 50% in 30% of the wards. In spite of this, handrub consumption remained at a low level in many of the wards.
There are several reasons for this, and the most important were self-reported nursing staff shortage and fear of adverse effects from using alcoholic handrub and verified skin irritation.
PubMed ID
27106164 View in PubMed
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Lessons learnt during 20 years of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297643
Source
Bull World Health Organ. 2017 Nov 01; 95(11):764-773
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-01-2017
Author
Sigvard Mölstad
Sonja Löfmark
Karin Carlin
Mats Erntell
Olov Aspevall
Lars Blad
Håkan Hanberger
Katarina Hedin
Jenny Hellman
Christer Norman
Gunilla Skoog
Cecilia Stålsby-Lundborg
Karin Tegmark Wisell
Christina Åhrén
Otto Cars
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Jan Waldenströmsg 35, 20502, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Bull World Health Organ. 2017 Nov 01; 95(11):764-773
Date
Nov-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy
Communicable Disease Control - organization & administration
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Government Programs - organization & administration
Humans
Population Surveillance - methods
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Sweden
Abstract
Increasing use of antibiotics and rising levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics are a challenge to global health and development. Successful initiatives for containing the problem need to be communicated and disseminated. In Sweden, a rapid spread of resistant pneumococci in the southern part of the country triggered the formation of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance, also known as Strama, in 1995. The creation of the programme was an important starting point for long-term coordinated efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance in the country. This paper describes the main strategies of the programme: committed work at the local and national levels; monitoring of antibiotic use for informed decision-making; a national target for antibiotic prescriptions; surveillance of antibiotic resistance for local, national and global action; tracking resistance trends; infection control to limit spread of resistance; and communication to raise awareness for action and behavioural change. A key element for achieving long-term changes has been the bottom-up approach, including working closely with prescribers at the local level. The work described here and the lessons learnt could inform countries implementing their own national action plans against antibiotic resistance.
L'utilisation croissante d'antibiotiques et l'augmentation de la résistance bactérienne aux antibiotiques constituent un défi pour le développement et la santé mondiaux. Il est nécessaire de communiquer et de diffuser les initiatives qui parviennent à contenir ce problème. En Suède, la propagation rapide de pneumocoques résistants dans le sud du pays en 1995 a conduit à la formation du Programme stratégique suédois contre la résistance aux antibiotiques, également connu sous le nom de Strama. La création de ce programme a été un point de départ important pour coordonner des efforts sur le long terme afin de lutter contre la résistance aux antibiotiques dans le pays. Cet article décrit les principales stratégies du programme: engagement aux niveaux local et national; suivi de l'utilisation d'antibiotiques afin de prendre des décisions en connaissance de cause; objectif national de prescription d'antibiotiques; surveillance de la résistance aux antibiotiques pour agir au niveau local, national et mondial; observation des tendances de résistance; lutte contre les infections afin de limiter la progression de la résistance; communication afin d'inciter à l'action et au changement des comportements. L'adoption d'une démarche ascendante a été un élément clé pour favoriser les changements à long terme, notamment la collaboration étroite avec les prescripteurs au niveau local. Le travail qui est décrit ici et les enseignements tirés pourraient aider les pays à mettre en œuvre leur propre plan d'action national contre la résistance aux antibiotiques.
El creciente uso de antibióticos y el aumento de los niveles de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos son un desafío para la salud y el desarrollo mundiales. Es necesario comunicar y difundir iniciativas de éxito para contener el problema. En Suecia, una rápida propagación de neumococos resistentes en el sur del país desencadenó la formación del programa estratégico sueco contra la resistencia a los antibióticos, también conocido como Strama, en 1995. La creación del programa fue un importante punto de partida de los esfuerzos coordinados a largo plazo para combatir la resistencia a los antibióticos en el país. En este artículo se describen las principales estrategias del programa: labores dedicadas a nivel local y nacional, supervisión del uso de antibióticos para tomar decisiones fundamentadas, un objetivo nacional para las recetas de antibióticos, vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos para la acción local, nacional y global; seguimiento de las tendencias de resistencia, control de las infecciones para reducir la propagación de la resistencia y comunicación para sensibilizar sobre las medidas y el cambio de comportamiento. Un elemento clave para conseguir cambios a largo plazo ha sido en enfoque ascendente, que incluye trabajar estrechamente con los médicos a nivel local. El trabajo aquí descrito y las lecciones aprendidas podrían ofrecer información a los países que implementan sus propios planes de medidas nacionales contra la resistencia a los antibióticos.
???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????. ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? 1995? ????? ????? ???? ???? Strama. ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????. ???? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???: ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????. ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????.
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 1995 ???????????????(??? Strama)????????????????????????????????????????????????:???????????????;????????????????;?????????????;???????????????????;?????????;?????????????;??????????????????????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.
??? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ? ??? ??????????. ? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? 1995 ???? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????????????? ? ????????????, ????? ????????? ??? Strama. ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???? ??????. ? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????: ???????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????? ??????????????, ???????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????. ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????? «????? ?????» ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ???????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????????. ????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ????????????.
PubMed ID
29147057 View in PubMed
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National Surveillance for Clostridioides difficile Infection, Sweden, 2009-2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299622
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 09; 24(9):1617-1625
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Kristina Rizzardi
Torbjörn Norén
Olov Aspevall
Barbro Mäkitalo
Michael Toepfer
Åsa Johansson
Thomas Åkerlund
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 09; 24(9):1617-1625
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Clostridium Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Clostridium difficile - isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
We report results from a national surveillance program for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in Sweden, where CDI incidence decreased by 22% and the proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates decreased by 80% during 2012-2016. Variation in incidence between counties also diminished during this period, which might be attributable to implementation of nucleic acid amplification testing as the primary diagnostic tool for most laboratories. In contrast to other studies, our study did not indicate increased CDI incidence attributable the introduction of nucleic acid amplification testing. Our results also suggest that successful implementation of hygiene measures is the major cause of the observed incidence decrease. Despite substantial reductions in CDI incidence and prevalence of multidrug-resistant isolates, Sweden still has one of the highest CDI incidence levels in Europe. This finding is unexpected and warrants further investigation, given that Sweden has among the lowest levels of antimicrobial drug use.
PubMed ID
30124193 View in PubMed
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Preventing introduction of livestock associated MRSA in a pig population--benefits, costs, and knowledge gaps from the Swedish perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269567
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122875
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Sören Höjgård
Olov Aspevall
Björn Bengtsson
Sara Hæggman
Maria Lindberg
Kristina Mieziewska
Svante Nilsson
Helle Ericsson Unnerstad
Diana Viske
Helene Wahlström
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122875
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Humans
Livestock - microbiology
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - veterinary
Sus scrofa - microbiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Swine - microbiology
Swine Diseases
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in human, as well as in veterinary medicine. Part of the problem concerns how to respond to the risk presented by animal reservoirs of resistant bacteria with the potential of spreading to humans. One example is livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). In countries where LA-MRSA is endemic in the pig population, people in contact with pigs have a higher risk of being colonised with LA-MRSA, and persons from this group are subjected to precautionary measures when visiting health care facilities. In the present study, it is assumed that, if LA-MRSA was introduced to the Swedish pig population, the prevalence in the risk groups would be the same as in Denmark or the Netherlands (two countries with low human prevalence that have implemented measures to detect, trace and isolate human LA-MRSA cases and, therefore, have comprehensive data with good coverage regarding prevalence of LA-MRSA), and that similar interventions would be taken in Swedish health care facilities. It is also assumed that the Swedish pig population is free of MRSA or that the prevalence is very low. We analyse if it would be efficient for Sweden to prevent its introduction by testing imported live breeding pigs. Given that quarantining and testing at import will prevent introduction to the pig population, the study shows that the preventive measures may indeed generate a societal net benefit. Benefits are estimated to be between € 870 720 and € 1 233 511, and costs to € 211 129. Still, due to gaps in knowledge, the results should be confirmed when more information become available.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25923329 View in PubMed
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