ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies.
We used the SCANDAT2 (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987 and 2012 were followed up for diagnosis of thromboembolism and arterial events. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios as measures of relative risk. A total of 9170 venous and 24 653 arterial events occurred in 1 112 072 individuals during 13.6 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis (incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.05), and pulmonary embolism (incidence rate ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-1.88).
In this healthy population of blood donors, non-O blood groups explain >30% of venous thromboembolic events. Although ABO blood groups may potentially be used with available prediction systems for identifying at-risk individuals, its clinical utility requires further comparison with other risk markers.
Exposure to organic solvents has been suggested to cause or exacerbate renal disease, but methodologic concerns regarding previous studies preclude firm conclusions. We examined the role of organic solvents in a population-based case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). All native Swedish residents aged 18 to 74 yr, living in Sweden between May 1996 and May 1998, formed the source population. Incident cases of CRF in a pre-uremic stage (n = 926) and control subjects (n = 998), randomly selected from the study base, underwent personal interviews that included a detailed occupational history. Expert rating by a certified occupational hygienist was used to assess organic solvent exposure intensity and duration. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for potentially important covariates. The overall risk for CRF among subjects ever exposed to organic solvents was virtually identical to that among never-exposed (OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.25). No dose-response relationships were observed for lifetime cumulative solvent exposure, average dose, or exposure frequency or duration. The absence of association pertained to all subgroups of CRF: glomerulonephritis (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.34), diabetic nephropathy (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.41), renal vascular disease (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.75), and other renal CRF (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.27). The results from a nationwide, population-based study do not support the hypothesis of an adverse effect of organic solvents on CRF development, in general. Detrimental effects from subclasses of solvents or on specific renal diseases cannot be ruled out.
Although many studies have investigated the possible association between analgesic use (acetaminophen and aspirin) and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of analgesics on the progression of established CKD of any cause has not yet been investigated.
In this population-based Swedish cohort study, we investigated the decline over 5-7 years in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among 801 patients with incident, advanced CKD (serum creatinine >3.4 mg/dL for men, >2.8 mg/dL for women for the first time) and with different analgesic exposures. Lifetime analgesic use and current regular use were ascertained through in-person interviews at inclusion while data on analgesic use during the follow-up was abstracted from the medical records at the end of the study period. A linear regression slope, based on their eGFR values during the follow-up, provided a summary of within-individual change. In the final multivariate analyses, a linear mixed effects model was implemented to assess the relation of analgesic use and change in eGFR over time.
The progression rate for regular users of acetaminophen was slower than that for non-regular users (regular users progressed 0.93 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year slower than non-regular users; 95% CI 0.03, 1.8). For regular users of aspirin, the progression rate was significantly slower than that for non-regular users (regular users progressed 0.80 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year slower than non-regular users; 95% CI 0.1, 1.5). Different levels of lifetime cumulative dose of acetaminophen and aspirin did not significantly affect the progression rate.
We suggest that single substance acetaminophen and aspirin may be safe to use by patients with diagnosed advanced CKD stage 4-5 without an adverse effect on the progression rate of the disease.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the validity and reproducibility of a newly developed internet-based self-administered hearing test using clinical pure-tone air-conducted audiometry as gold standard. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional intrasubject comparative study. SETTING: Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden. PATIENTS: Seventy-two participants (79% women) with mean age of 45 years (range, 19-71 yr). Twenty participants had impaired hearing according to the gold standard test. INTERVENTIONS: Hearing tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Pearson correlation coefficient between the results of the studied Internet-based hearing test and the gold standard test, the greatest mean differences in decibel between the 2 tests over tested frequencies, sensitivity and specificity to diagnose hearing loss defined by Heibel-Lidén, and test-retest reproducibility with the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.94 (p
Background/ AIMS: H. pylori infection is undoubtedly an important risk factor for gastric cancer. It remains unclear, however, whether antibiotic treatment may prevent gastric cancer development. Our aim was to assess long-term gastric cancer risks in historic cohorts of patients presumed to have been heavily exposed to antibiotics. SUBJECTS: Using the Swedish Inpatient Register, we identified 501,757 individuals discharged with any of ten selected infectious disease diagnoses between 1970 and 2003. METHODS: We counted person-time and non-cardia gastric cancer occurrences through linkage to virtually complete population and health care registers. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for comparisons with cancer incidence rates of the general population in Sweden. RESULTS: No reduction in gastric cancer risk was observed in the infectious disease cohort in total (SIR=1.08, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]=1.00-1.17), or for any of the presumed antibiotic regimens. There were no clear trends towards decreasing risk with time of follow-up, but the risk tended to fall with increasing age at first hospitalization for the infection (p
OBJECTIVE: Researchers have speculated that surgical excision of lymphoid tissue, such as appendectomy, early in life might confer an increased risk of cancer. In this study, we determined the risks of cancer for people who had appendectomy performed during childhood. METHODS: We studied the risk of cancer in a large Swedish cohort of children who had appendectomy performed during the period of 1965-1993. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed using age-, gender-, and period-specific incidence rates derived from the entire Swedish population as comparison. Hospital discharge diagnosis data were used to examine cancer risks by categories of surgery, medical conditions, and type of appendicitis. The average length of follow-up was 11.2 years. RESULTS: We found no excess overall cancer risk but noted a significant excess for stomach cancer (SIR: 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.8) and a borderline increase of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; SIR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3). The elevated risks for both cancers were only evident 15 or more years after appendectomy (stomach cancer, SIR: 3.82; 95% CI: 1.7-7.5; NHL, SIR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.4-4.2). CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that there was no overall increase of cancer several years after childhood appendectomy. Increased risks for NHL and stomach cancer, occurring 15 or more years after appendectomy, were based on small absolute numbers of excess cancers. As 95% of the subjects were younger than 40 years at exit, this cohort requires continuing follow-up and monitoring.
For determining whether smoking is associated with an increased risk for chronic renal failure (CRF) overall and by type of renal disease, smoking data were analyzed from a nationwide population-based case-control study. Eligible as cases were native 18- to 74-yr-old Swedes whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women). A total of 926 cases (78% of all eligible) and 998 control subjects (75% of 1330 randomly selected subjects from the source population), frequency matched to the cases by gender and age within 10 yr, were included. A face-to-face interview and a self-administered questionnaire provided information about smoking habits and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk for disease-specific types of CRF among smokers compared with never-smokers. Despite a modest and nonsignificant overall association, the risk increased with high daily doses (OR among smokers of >20 cigarettes/d, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.15), long duration (OR among smokers for >40 yr, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.09), and a high cumulative dose (OR among smokers with >30 pack-years, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.14). Smoking increased risk most strongly for CRF classified as nephrosclerosis (OR among smokers with >20 pack-years, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8), but significant positive associations were also noted with glomerulonephritis. This study thus suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CRF for both men and women, at least CRF classified as nephrosclerosis and glomerulonephritis.
Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting.
To study the association of donor age and sex with survival of patients receiving transfusions.
A retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, with nationwide data, was conducted for all patients from Sweden and Denmark who received at least 1 red blood cell transfusion of autologous blood or blood from unknown donors between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Patients were followed up from the first transfusion until death, emigration, or end of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from September 15 to November 15, 2016.
The number of transfusions from blood donors of different age and sex. Exposure was treated time dependently throughout follow-up.
Hazard ratios (HRs) for death and adjusted cumulative mortality differences, both estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results of a crude analysis including 968?264 transfusion recipients (550?257 women and 418?007 men; median age at first transfusion, 73.0 years [interquartile range, 59.8-82.4 years]) showed a U-shaped association between age of the blood donor and recipient mortality, with a nadir in recipients for the most common donor age group (40-49 years) and significant and increasing HRs among recipients of blood from donors of successively more extreme age groups (
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Frequent hand-washing is standard advice for avoidance of respiratory tract infections, but the evidence for a preventive effect in a general community setting is sparse. We therefore set out to quantify, in a population-based adult general population cohort, the possible protection against acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) conferred by a person's self-perceived hand-washing frequency.
During the pandemic influenza season from September 2009 through May 2010, a cohort of 4365 adult residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, reported respiratory illnesses in real-time. A questionnaire about typical contact and hand-washing behaviour was administered at the end of the period (response rate 70%).
There was no significant decrease in ARI rates among adults with increased daily hand-washing frequency: Compared to 2-4 times/day, 5-9 times was associated with an adjusted ARI rate ratio (RR) of 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.33), 10-19 times with RR?=?1.22 (CI 0.97-1.53), and =20 times with RR?=?1.03 (CI 0.81-1.32). A similar lack of effect was seen for influenza-like illness, and in all investigated subgroups. We found no clear effect modification by contact behaviour. Health care workers exhibited rate ratio point estimates below unity, but no dose-risk trend.
Our results suggest that increases in what adult laymen perceive as being adequate hand-washing may not significantly reduce the risk of ARIs. This might have implications for the design of public health campaigns in the face of threatening outbreaks of respiratory infections. However, the generalizability of our results to non-pandemic circumstances should be further explored.
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Because of the differences in bacterial epitopes and host characteristics, infections with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induce different immune responses. We explored the possibility that certain antibody response patterns are more closely linked to gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) than others. In a Swedish population-based case-control study, serum samples were obtained from 268 cases and 222 controls, aged 40-79 years and frequency-matched according to age and sex. We measured antibodies against 17 H. pylori proteins using multiplex serology. Associations were estimated with multivariably adjusted logistic regression models, using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) as measures of relative risk. Associations were essentially confined to non-cardia GAC but did not differ significantly between intestinal and diffuse subtypes. Point estimates for all antibodies were above unity, 15 significant with top three being CagA (OR?=?9.2), GroEL (6.6), HyuA (3.6). ORs were substantially attenuated in individuals with chronic atrophic gastritis. Principal component analysis identified two significant factors: a CagA-dominant factor (antibodies against CagA, VacA and Omp as prominent markers), and a non-CagA factor (antibodies against NapA and Catalase as prominent markers). Both factors showed dose-dependent associations with non-cardia GAC risk (CagA-dominant factor, highest vs. lowest quartiles, OR?=?16.2 [95% CI 4.8-54.9]; non-CagA factor OR?=?5.3 [95% CI 2.1-13.3]). Overall, our results confirm that serum antibodies against different H. pylori proteins are associated with the presence of non-cardia GAC. Although strongest association is detected by antibodies against CagA and covarying proteins, a pattern of antibodies unrelated to CagA is also significantly linked to the risk of non-cardia GAC.