The goal was to examine the relationship between age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year of life and allergic sensitization in 5-year-old children.
We analyzed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention nutrition study, a prospective, birth cohort study. We studied 994 children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus for whom information on breastfeeding, age at the introduction of solid foods, and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels at 5 years was available. The association between age at the introduction of solid foods and allergic sensitization was analyzed by using logistic regression.
The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 1.8 months (range: 0-10 months). After adjustment for potential confounders, late introduction of potatoes (>4 months), oats (>5 months), rye (>7 months), wheat (>6 months), meat (>5.5 months), fish (>8.2 months), and eggs (>10.5 months) was significantly directly associated with sensitization to food allergens. Late introduction of potatoes, rye, meat, and fish was significantly associated with sensitization to any inhalant allergen. In models that included all solid foods that were significantly related to the end points, eggs, oats, and wheat remained the most important foods related to sensitization to food allergens, whereas potatoes and fish were the most important foods associated with inhalant allergic sensitization. We found no evidence of reverse causality, taking into account parental allergic rhinitis and asthma.
Late introduction of solid foods was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization to food and inhalant allergens.
A third of parents suspect food allergy in their children. Questionnaire-based studies usually overestimate the occurrence of food allergies. The aim of the present study was to validate a study questionnaire by comparing children's use of special diets as reported by parents with patient records at the hospital.
A population-based cohort with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (15% of those screened) was recruited in the Tampere area between 1997 and 2001, and followed for development of food allergy for 3 years. Food allergies and other special diets were queried at the age of 3 years with a structured questionnaire. The hospital records of the children, whose parents had reported an elimination diet of the child, were studied to validate the parental reports of food allergies. The hospital database was also checked for the respective diagnosis codes to estimate underreporting.
Altogether, 1122 parents returned the questionnaire at the study center visit when the child was 3 years old. Food allergy was reported by 15.0% of the parents. In 10.6% of the children food allergy had been diagnosed or confirmed at the hospital. Hospital-confirmed food allergy was unreported in 0.9% of the cases. The measure of agreement between reported and hospital-confirmed food allergies, using crosstabulation with Cohen's Kappa, was within 0.71-0.88 for cow's milk allergy, 0.74-0.82 for cereal allergy and 0.66-0.86 for any reported food allergy.
We found that the validity of the questionnaire obtaining information on food allergies of infants and young children was good to excellent based on a comparison between parental reports and information obtained from patient records.
Animal models suggest that androgen receptor gene polymorphisms might affect disease predisposition in human immune-mediated diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the human androgen receptor gene exon 1 CAG repeat polymorphisms on type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility.
A combined strategy of case-control and family-based approaches was used. Affected sibling pair families (n=120), nuclear families (n=645) and cohorts of sporadic cases (n=208) and controls (n=1381) were genotyped for androgen receptor gene exon 1 CAG repeat polymorphism. An automated fluorescence-based DNA fragment-sizing method was used.
The distribution of CAG repeat alleles did not differ significantly between patients and controls. However, short repeat alleles (7-14) were more prevalent among cases in girls compared with controls (8.77% vs 5.91%; P=0.03). Long repeat alleles (19-28) were less frequent among HLA DR3-positive diseased boys than in DR3-positive control boys (32.6% vs 40.6%; P=0.011). The differences were not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Transmission of CAG repeat alleles was not different from expected in the total material. However, transmissions to girls deviated from the expected value significantly (extended transmission disequilibrium test (ETDT) 37.82; P=0.0016). A decreased transmission of the alleles with 13, 20 and 26 repeats to girls was observed (T%0, P=0.046; T%25.5, P=0.0003, T%0, P=0.025).
The results do not support a common role for the androgen receptor gene exon 1 CAG repeat in T1D susceptibility; however, an effect of a disease variant in linkage disequilibrium could be detected.
In Finland the world-record for the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes has risen steeply over the past decades. However, after 2006 the incidence rate has plateaued. We showed earlier, that despite the strong genetic disease component, environmental factors are driving the increasing disease incidence.
Since vitamin D intake has increased considerably in the country since 2003, we analyzed how serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration changed over time in healthy children, and the timely relation of these changes to disease incidence.
The birth cohort of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention project was used to explore longitudinal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin concentrations. The sampling period was limited to children born from 1994 to 2004, with serum samples collected during 1998-2006 in the Turku area, Southwest Finland (60 ?N).
25(OH)D concentrations were measured every 3-6 months from birth, ages ranging from 0.3 to 12.2 years (387 subjects, 5334 measurements).
Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were markedly lower before 2003 than after (69.3 ? 1.0 nmol/L vs 84.9 ? 1.3 nmol/L, respectively, P
Exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with markers of preclinical atherosclerosis in adults, but its effect on arterial structure in adolescents is unknown.
Healthy 13-year-old adolescents from the atherosclerosis prevention trial STRIP were studied. Maximum carotid and aortic intima-media thickness and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation were measured in 494 adolescents using high-resolution ultrasound. Serum lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and B concentrations were determined using standard methods. Exposure to tobacco smoke was measured annually between ages 8 and 13 years using serum cotinine concentrations, analyzed with gas chromatography. To define longitudinal exposure, cotinine values of children having serum cotinine measured 2 to 6 times during follow-up were averaged and divided into tertiles (exposure groups): low (n=160), intermediate (n=171), and high (n=163). Adolescents with higher longitudinal exposure to tobacco smoke had increased carotid intima-media thickness (exposure groups [mean+/-SD]: low, 0.502+/-0.079 mm; intermediate, 0.525+/-0.070 mm; high, 0.535+/-0.066 mm; P
Children with persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The impact of antimicrobial therapy for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is unsolved.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with antimicrobial agents effective against C pneumoniae during childhood, regardless of indication, has a favorable influence on the arterial wall-thickness in children by the time they reach adolescence.
The association of macrolide, tetracycline, quinolone, and rifamycin use (number of exposure events) between ages 5 and 13 years with carotid and aortic intima-media thickness at age 13 years was investigated among 508 healthy children. Information about the use of medications was obtained from the Finnish prescription register. Arterial intima-media thickness was measured with a high-resolution ultrasound.
Mean aortic intima-media thickness showed a significant direct association with the number of antichlamydial antimicrobial exposure events also after controlling for established atherosclerotic risk factors. Elevated C-reactive protein level had an additional effect on aortic intima-media thickness in a multivariable model. Carotid intima-media thickness was not associated with the number of preceding antichlamydial treatments.
Recurrent antichlamydial treatments in childhood have no favorable influence on early vascular changes but are associated with increased intima-media thickness in the abdominal aorta. These findings suggest that the use of antimicrobial agents does not offer protection against the potential atherogenicity of repeated infectious insults.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS) genes are important mediators of T-cell activation in autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of CTLA-4 and ICOS genes on the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes among two populations with different disease incidence rates. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CTLA-4 region (+49A/G, CT60A/G, CTBC217_1C/T) and two SNPs within the ICOS region (CTIC154_1 C/T, CTIC159 C/G) were genotyped in 955 control subjects and 574 diabetic patients of Estonian and Finnish descent. The current study confirms the involvement of the CTLA-4 but not the ICOS gene in susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. However, the risk alleles and the defined main risk haplotype were more common in the Finnish controls compared with the Estonians, indicating that this gene locus might also be one of the contributing factors to the higher disease incidence in Finland.
The association of dietary alpha-linolenic acid with blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis in people born small for gestational age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project study.
To determine whether dietary alpha-linolenic (omega-3) fatty acid intake is associated with lower blood pressure and aortic intima-media thickness (IMT) in people born small for gestational age (SGA).
Participants were recruited at age 6 months and followed up every 6-12 months until age 19 years. Blood pressure and food records were assessed at each visit. A total of 1009 participants had at least one blood pressure measure and complete birth weight and gestational age data, including 115 (11%) born SGA (birth weight=10th percentile). Aortic IMT was assessed by ultrasound at 19 years (n=413). Analysis was by linear mixed models and multivariable linear regression.
Children born SGA had greater systolic and pulse pressure from age 14 years onwards. In those born SGA, systolic blood pressure was 2.1 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.8-3.3]; P=.001) and pulse pressure 1.4 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.3-2.4]; P=.01), per exponential increase in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake; weakened by adjustment for anthropometric measures. Long-term ALA intake was inversely associated with aortic IMT at 19 years in those born SGA (-0.30 mm [95% CI -0.52, -0.08] per exponential greater ALA intake; P=.008), independent of other dietary and anthropometric factors.
Long-term dietary ALA intake during childhood is associated with improved vascular health in people born SGA.
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) DNA is frequently detected in the upper airways of young children with respiratory symptoms. Because of its persistence and frequent co-detection with other viruses, however, its etiologic role has remained controversial. During 2009-2011, using HBoV1 IgM, IgG, and IgG-avidity enzyme immunoassays and quantitative PCR, we examined 1,952 serum samples collected consecutively at 3- to 6-month intervals from 109 constitutionally healthy children from infancy to early adolescence. Primary HBoV1 infection, as indicated by seroconversion, appeared in 102 (94%) of 109 children at a mean age of 2.3 years; the remaining 7 children were IgG antibody positive from birth. Subsequent secondary infections or IgG antibody increases were evident in 38 children and IgG reversions in 10. Comparison of the seroconversion interval with the next sampling interval for clinical events indicated that HBoV1 primary infection, but not secondary immune response, was significantly associated with acute otitis media and respiratory illness.
Blood pressure was measured in the prospective randomized Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project Study with an oscillometric method every year from 7 months to 15 years of age in 540 children receiving a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet and in 522 control children. Dietary intakes, family history of parental hypertension, and grandparental vascular disease were recorded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 1.0 mm Hg lower (95% CI for systolic: -1.7 to -0.2 mm Hg; 95% CI for diastolic: -1.5 to -0.4 mm Hg) in children receiving low-saturated-fat counseling through childhood than in control children. Intakes of saturated fat were lower (P