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10-year trends of educational differences in long sickness absence due to mental disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285500
Source
J Occup Health. 2017 Jul 27;59(4):352-355
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-27-2017
Author
Hilla Sumanen
Olli Pietiläinen
Eero Lahelma
Ossi Rahkonen
Source
J Occup Health. 2017 Jul 27;59(4):352-355
Date
Jul-27-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Education - classification - statistics & numerical data
Employment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - psychology
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Mental disorders are a key cause of sickness absence (SA) and challenge prolonging working careers. Thus, evidence on the development of SA trends is needed. In this study, educational differences in long SAs due to mental disorders were examined in two age groups among employees of the City of Helsinki from 2004 to 2013.
All permanently and temporarily employed staff aged 18-34 and 35-49 were included in the analyses (n=~27800 per year). SA spells of =14 days due to mental disorders were examined annually. Education was classified to higher and lower levels. Joinpoint regression was used to identify major turning points in SA trends.
Joinpoint regression models showed that lower educated groups had more long SAs spells due to mental disorders than those groups with higher education. SA trends decreased during the study period in all studied age and educational groups. Lower educated age groups had similar SA trends. Younger employees with higher education had the fewest SAs.
A clear educational gradient was found in long SAs due to mental disorders during the study period. SA trends decreased from 2004 to 2013.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28496028 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes of occupational class differences in physical functioning: a panel study among employees (2000-2007).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140256
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Mar;66(3):265-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Olli Pietiläinen
Mikko Laaksonen
Janne Pitkäniemi
Ossi Rahkonen
Eero Lahelma
Author Affiliation
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, PO Box 41, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. olli.k.pietilainen@helsinki.fi
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Mar;66(3):265-70
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Bayes Theorem
Cohort Studies
Employment - classification
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupations - classification - economics
Physical Exertion
Questionnaires
Workload - psychology
Abstract
Panel studies on changes of occupational class differences in health have given varying results. The aim of this study was to examine changes of occupational class differences in physical functioning and the factors that explain these changes.
A cohort of middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki was followed up for an average of 6 years in two surveys from 2000-2002 and 2007. Hierarchical linear random effects models were fitted to analyse the changes of occupational class differences in SF-36 physical functioning, as well as the contribution of physical and psychosocial working conditions, material conditions, health behaviours and employment status to these changes.
Lower occupational classes had worse physical functioning at baseline: among women, the SF-36 scores ranged from 50.5 in the highest class to 47.1 in the lowest one, and among men from 52.2 to 48.9, with higher scores indicating better health. Occupational class differences widened during the follow-up due to stronger decline of physical functioning in the lower occupational classes than in the higher occupational classes. The largest difference in the decline of functioning between classes was 1.2 scores among women and 1.5 scores among men. Among women the widening of the class differences could be explained partly by health behaviours and employment status and among men by material conditions.
Occupational class differences in physical functioning widened due to a faster decline of physical functioning in the lower occupational classes. Health behaviours, employment status and material conditions explained the widening class differences in physical functioning.
PubMed ID
20924055 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes Over Time in Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Differences in Smoking: A Comparison of Cohort Studies From Britain, Finland, and Japan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286789
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Aug;18(8):1697-704
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Eero Lahelma
Olli Pietiläinen
Jane Ferrie
Mika Kivimäki
Jouni Lahti
Michael Marmot
Ossi Rahkonen
Michikazu Sekine
Martin Shipley
Takashi Tatsuse
Tea Lallukka
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Aug;18(8):1697-704
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Japan - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control - trends
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
United Kingdom - epidemiology
Abstract
Socioeconomic differences in smoking over time and across national contexts are poorly understood. We assessed the magnitude of relative and absolute social class differences in smoking in cohorts from Britain, Finland, and Japan over 5-7 years.
The British Whitehall II study (n = 4350), Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 6328), and Japanese Civil Servants Study (n = 1993) all included employed men and women aged 35-68 at baseline in 1997-2002. Follow-up was in 2003-2007 (mean follow-up 5.1, 6.5, and 3.6 years, respectively). Occupational social class (managers, professionals and clerical employees) was measured at baseline. Current smoking and covariates (age, marital status, body mass index, and self-rated health) were measured at baseline and follow-up. We assessed relative social class differences using the Relative Index of Inequality and absolute differences using the Slope Index of Inequality.
Social class differences in smoking were found in Britain and Finland, but not in Japan. Age-adjusted relative differences at baseline ranged from Relative Index of Inequality 3.08 (95% confidence interval 1.99-4.78) among Finnish men to 2.32 (1.24-4.32) among British women, with differences at follow-up greater by 8%-58%. Absolute differences remained stable and varied from Slope Index of Inequality 0.27 (0.15-0.40) among Finnish men to 0.10 (0.03-0.16) among British women. Further adjustment for covariates had modest effects on inequality indices.
Large social class differences in smoking persisted among British and Finnish men and women, with widening tendencies in relative differences over time. No differences could be confirmed among Japanese men or women.
Changes over time in social class differences in smoking are poorly understood across countries. Our study focused on employees from Britain, Finland and Japan, and found relative and absolute and class differences among British and Finnish men and women. Key covariates had modest effects on the differences. Relative differences tended to widen over the 4- to 7-year follow-up, whereas absolute differences remained stable. In contrast, class differences in smoking among Japanese men or women were not found. Britain and Finland are at the late stage of the smoking epidemic model, whereas Japan may not follow the same model.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26764256 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contribution of rare and common variants to intellectual disability in a sub-isolate of Northern Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298339
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 24; 10(1):410
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-24-2019
Author
Mitja I Kurki
Elmo Saarentaus
Olli Pietiläinen
Padhraig Gormley
Dennis Lal
Sini Kerminen
Minna Torniainen-Holm
Eija Hämäläinen
Elisa Rahikkala
Riikka Keski-Filppula
Merja Rauhala
Satu Korpi-Heikkilä
Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim
Heli Helander
Päivi Vieira
Minna Männikkö
Markku Peltonen
Aki S Havulinna
Veikko Salomaa
Matti Pirinen
Jaana Suvisaari
Jukka S Moilanen
Jarmo Körkkö
Outi Kuismin
Mark J Daly
Aarno Palotie
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric & Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 24; 10(1):410
Date
01-24-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein - genetics
Cognitive Dysfunction - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
DNA Copy Number Variations - genetics
Exome
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genetic Association Studies
Genetic Diseases, Inborn - epidemiology - genetics
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation - genetics
Genome, Human - genetics
Geography
Homozygote
Humans
Intellectual Disability - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Male
Multifactorial Inheritance
Mutation
Neurodevelopmental Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Pathology, Molecular
Prevalence
Whole Exome Sequencing
Abstract
The contribution of de novo variants in severe intellectual disability (ID) has been extensively studied whereas the genetics of mild ID has been less characterized. To elucidate the genetics of milder ID we studied 442 ID patients enriched for mild ID (>50%) from a population isolate of Finland. Using exome sequencing, we show that rare damaging variants in known ID genes are observed significantly more often in severe (27%) than in mild ID (13%) patients. We further observe a significant enrichment of functional variants in genes not yet associated with ID (OR: 2.1). We show that a common variant polygenic risk significantly contributes to ID. The heritability explained by polygenic risk score is the highest for educational attainment (EDU) in mild ID (2.2%) but lower for more severe ID (0.6%). Finally, we identify a Finland enriched homozygote variant in the CRADD ID associated gene.
PubMed ID
30679432 View in PubMed
Less detail

Educational differences in disability retirement among young employees in Helsinki, Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279190
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2016 Apr;26(2):318-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Hilla Sumanen
Ossi Rahkonen
Olli Pietiläinen
Eero Lahelma
Eira Roos
Jouni Lahti
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2016 Apr;26(2):318-22
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Disability retirement (DR) among young employees is an increasing problem affecting work life and public health, given the potential major loss of working time. Little is known about educational differences in the risk of DR among young employees, despite the need for such knowledge in targeting preventive measures. We examined the association between education and DR due to any cause and to mental and non-mental causes among young employees.
Personnel register data of the City of Helsinki from the years 2002-2013 for 25-to-34-year-old employees (n= 41225) were linked to register data from the Finnish Centre for Pensions on DR (n= 381), and from Statistics Finland on education. Education was categorised into four hierarchical groups. The mean follow-up time was 5.7 years. Cox regression analysis was used.
There were 381 DR events and of the events, over 70% were due to mental disorders and 72% were temporary. A consistent educational gradient was found. Those with a basic education were at the highest risk of DR due to any cause (HR 4.64, 95% CI 3.07, 7.02), and to mental (HR 4.79, 95% CI 2.89, 7.94) and non-mental causes (HR 4.32, 95% CI 2.10, 8.91).
DR due to any cause, and to mental and non-mental causes, followed a clear educational gradient. Early intervention, treatment and rehabilitation with a view to maintaining work ability are needed among young employees, especially those with low education. Adapting working conditions to their health and work ability may also help to avoid premature exit from work.
PubMed ID
26678276 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impact of constitutional TET2 haploinsufficiency on molecular and clinical phenotype in humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299077
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 03 19; 10(1):1252
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-19-2019
Author
Eevi Kaasinen
Outi Kuismin
Kristiina Rajamäki
Heikki Ristolainen
Mervi Aavikko
Johanna Kondelin
Silva Saarinen
Davide G Berta
Riku Katainen
Elina A M Hirvonen
Auli Karhu
Aurora Taira
Tomas Tanskanen
Amjad Alkodsi
Minna Taipale
Ekaterina Morgunova
Kaarle Franssila
Rainer Lehtonen
Markus Mäkinen
Kristiina Aittomäki
Aarno Palotie
Mitja I Kurki
Olli Pietiläinen
Morgane Hilpert
Elmo Saarentaus
Jaakko Niinimäki
Juhani Junttila
Kari Kaikkonen
Pia Vahteristo
Radek C Skoda
Mikko R J Seppänen
Kari K Eklund
Jussi Taipale
Outi Kilpivaara
Lauri A Aaltonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 03 19; 10(1):1252
Date
03-19-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Atherosclerosis - genetics - pathology
Cells, Cultured
DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases - genetics - metabolism
DNA Methylation - genetics
DNA-Binding Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Epigenesis, Genetic
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Germ-Line Mutation
Haploinsufficiency
Hematopoiesis - genetics
Hodgkin Disease - blood - genetics - pathology
Humans
Male
Phenotype
Primary Cell Culture
Proto-Oncogene Proteins - genetics - metabolism
RNA, Small Interfering - metabolism
Whole Genome Sequencing
Abstract
Clonal hematopoiesis driven by somatic heterozygous TET2 loss is linked to malignant degeneration via consequent aberrant DNA methylation, and possibly to cardiovascular disease via increased cytokine and chemokine expression as reported in mice. Here, we discover a germline TET2 mutation in a lymphoma family. We observe neither unusual predisposition to atherosclerosis nor abnormal pro-inflammatory cytokine or chemokine expression. The latter finding is confirmed in cells from three additional unrelated TET2 germline mutation carriers. The TET2 defect elevates blood DNA methylation levels, especially at active enhancers and cell-type specific regulatory regions with binding sequences of master transcription factors involved in hematopoiesis. The regions display reduced methylation relative to all open chromatin regions in four DNMT3A germline mutation carriers, potentially due to TET2-mediated oxidation. Our findings provide insight into the interplay between epigenetic modulators and transcription factor activity in hematological neoplasia, but do not confirm the putative role of TET2 in atherosclerosis.
PubMed ID
30890702 View in PubMed
Less detail

Interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of sickness absence among young employees in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267039
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:332
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Hilla Sumanen
Olli Pietiläinen
Jouni Lahti
Eero Lahelma
Ossi Rahkonen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:332
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Educational Status
Employment
Female
Finland
Humans
Income
Male
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Abstract
A low socioeconomic position (SEP) is consistently associated with ill health, sickness absence (SA) and permanent disability, but studies among young employees are lacking. We examined the interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of SA among 25-34-year-old employees. We also examined, whether the association between SEP and SA varied over time in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013.
The analyses covered young, 25-34-year-old women and men employed by the City of Helsinki over the time periods 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. Four-level education and occupational class classifications were used, as well as income quartiles. The outcome measure was the number of annual SA days.
Education had the strongest and most consistent independent association with SA among women and men in both periods under study. Occupational class had weaker independent and less consistent association with SA. Income had an independent association with SA, which strengthened over time among the men. The interrelationships between the SEP indicators and SA were partly explained by prior or mediated through subsequent SEP indicators. Socioeconomic differences followed only partially a gradient for occupational class and also for income among men.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of SA should be considered, especially among young employees with a basic or lower-secondary education.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25888526 View in PubMed
Less detail

The joint contribution of cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status to disability retirement: A register linkage study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287277
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2017 Mar 01;230:222-227
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-01-2017
Author
Marianna Virtanen
Tea Lallukka
Jenni Ervasti
Ossi Rahkonen
Eero Lahelma
Jaana Pentti
Olli Pietiläinen
Jussi Vahtera
Mika Kivimäki
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2017 Mar 01;230:222-227
Date
Mar-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - economics - epidemiology - etiology
Disability Evaluation
Disabled Persons - rehabilitation
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - complications - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Prevalence
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Retirement
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Whether low occupational class amplifies the risk of disability retirement among employees with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. We examined this issue in two prospective cohort studies.
In the Finnish Public Sector Study and the Helsinki Health Study (n=50.799 employees), prevalent CVD (coronary heart disease or stroke, n=1269) was ascertained using records from national health registers, self-reported doctor-diagnosed diseases, and Rose Angina Questionnaire. Data linkage to national pension registers allowed the follow up of disability retirement among the participants for a mean of six years. We analysed the associations of occupational class and CVD with disability retirement using Cox regression, tested interactions between occupational class and prevalent CVD in predicting disability retirement by calculating the Synergy Index, and pooled the results from the two studies using fixed-effect meta-analysis.
Compared with the participants from high occupational class and no CVD, the participants from the low occupational class without CVD had a 2.13-fold (95% CI 1.97-2.30), those with high occupational class and CVD a 2.18-fold (1.73-2.74); and those with both low occupational class and CVD a 4.49-fold (3.83-5.26) risk of disability retirement. A Synergy Index of 1.55 (1.16-2.06) suggested a greater than additive effect for low occupational class and CVD in combination.
Individuals with both low occupational class and CVD are at a particularly high risk of premature exit from the labour market due to work disability. These findings suggest that better preventive strategies are needed to improve prognosis in this risk group.
PubMed ID
28063665 View in PubMed
Less detail

Mental symptoms and cause-specific mortality among midlife employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284147
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Nov 08;16(1):1142
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-08-2016
Author
Eero Lahelma
Olli Pietiläinen
Ossi Rahkonen
Jouni Lahti
Tea Lallukka
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Nov 08;16(1):1142
Date
Nov-08-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adult
Cause of Death
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - complications
Mental health
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Social Class
Suicide
Surveys and Questionnaires
Violence
Workplace
Abstract
Mental symptoms are prevalent among populations, but their associations with premature mortality are inadequately understood. We examined whether mental symptoms contribute to cause-specific mortality among midlife employees, while considering key covariates.
Baseline mail survey data from 2000-02 included employees, aged 40-60, of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n?=?8960, 80 % women, response rate 67 %). Mental symptoms were measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12) and the Short Form 36 mental component summary (MCS). Covariates included sex, marital status, social support, health behaviours, occupational social class and limiting long-standing illness. Causes of death by the end of 2013 were obtained from Statistics Finland (n?=?242) and linked individually to survey data pending consent (n?=?6605). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were calculated using Cox regression analysis.
For all-cause mortality, only MCS showed a weak association before adjustments. For natural mortality, no associations were found. For unnatural mortality (n?=?21), there was a sex adjusted association with GHQ (HR?=?1.96, 95 % CI?=?1.45-2.64) and MCS (2.30, 95 % CI?=?1.72-3.08). Among unnatural causes of death suicidal mortality (n?=?11) was associated with both GHQ (2.20, 95 % CI?=?1.47-3.29) and MCS (2.68, 95 % CI?=?1.80-3.99). Of the covariates limiting long-standing illness modestly attenuated the associations.
Two established measures of mental symptoms, i.e. GHQ-12 and SF-36 MCS, were both associated with subsequent unnatural, i.e. accidental and violent, as well as suicidal mortality. No associations were found for natural mortality due to diseases. These findings need to be corroborated in further populations. Supporting mental health through workplace measures may help counteract subsequent suicidal and other unnatural mortality among midlife employees.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27825372 View in PubMed
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Neuregulin-1 genotype is associated with structural differences in the normal human brain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130255
Source
Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 1;59(3):2057-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2012
Author
Anna Barnes
Matti Isohanni
Jennifer H Barnett
Olli Pietiläinen
Juha Veijola
Jouko Miettunen
Tiina Paunio
Päivikki Tanskanen
Khanum Ridler
John Suckling
Edward T Bullmore
Peter B Jones
Graham K Murray
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Box 189 Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. ab698@cam.ac.uk
Source
Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 1;59(3):2057-61
Date
Feb-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alleles
Brain - anatomy & histology
Brain Mapping
Cognition - physiology
Cohort Studies
DNA - genetics
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Intelligence Tests
Linear Models
Male
Neuregulin-1 - genetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Schizophrenia - pathology
Sex Characteristics
Thalamus - anatomy & histology
Abstract
The human neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) gene is highly expressed in the brain, is implicated in numerous functions associated with neuronal development, and is a leading candidate gene for schizophrenia. The T allele of SNP8NRG243177, part of a risk haplotype for schizophrenia, has been previously associated with decreases in white matter in the right anterior internal capsule and the left anterior thalamic radiation. To our knowledge no studies have described the effects of SNP8NRG243177 on grey matter volume at a voxelwise level. We assessed associations between this SNP and brain structure in 79 general population volunteers from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966). We show, for the first time, that genetic variation in SNP8NRG243177 is associated with variation in frontal brain structure in both grey and white matter. T allele carriers showed decreased grey matter volume in several frontal gyri, including inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate gyrus, as well as decreased white matter volume in the regions of the genu and body of the corpus callosum, anterior and superior corona radiata, anterior limb of the internal capsule and external capsule regions traversed by major white matter tracts of the anterior thalamic radiation, and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. These results suggest that this genetic variant may mediate risk for schizophrenia, in part, through its effect on brain structure in these regions.
PubMed ID
22019858 View in PubMed
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