Diabetic retinopathy is accompanied by disturbances in retinal blood flow, which is assumed to be related to the diabetic metabolic dysregulation. It has previously been shown that normoinsulinemic hyperglycemia has no effect on the diameter of retinal arterioles at rest and during an increase in the arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. However, the influence of hyperinsulinemia on this response has not been studied in detail. In seven normal persons, the diameter response of retinal arterioles to an increased blood pressure induced by isometric exercise, to stimulation with flickering light, and to the combination of these stimuli was studied during euglycemic normoinsulinemia (protocol N) on one examination day, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (protocol H) on another examination day. Isometric exercise induced significant contraction of retinal arterioles at all examinations, but during a repeated examination the diameter response was significantly reduced in the test persons following the N protocol and increased in the persons following the H protocol. Flicker stimulation induced a significant dilatation of retinal arterioles at all examinations, and the response was significantly higher during a repeated examination, irrespective of the insulin level. Repeated exposure to isometric exercise reduces contraction, whereas repeated exposure to flickering light increases dilatation of retinal arterioles in vivo. Hyperinsulinemia increases contraction of retinal arterioles induced by isometric exercise.
The cardiovascular safety, including risk of myocardial infarction (MI), of individual sulfonylureas (SUs) may differ. It remains uncertain whether treatment with individual SUs influences prognosis following MI.
We conducted a nationwide population-based follow-up study among all Danish patients hospitalized with first-time MI from 1996 to 2004. From the national health databases, we identified 3930 MI patients who used SUs at the time of admission. We computed mortality rates and rates of MI and heart failure readmission according to type of SU and used Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis to compute hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of relative risk controlling for differences in prognostic covariates.
The 30-day and 1-year mortality after MI among SU users was 22.0% and 35.3%, respectively. We found no substantial differences in 30-day and 1-year mortality among users of different SUs. Use of gliclazide in monotherapy showed a trend towards lower mortality; adjusted HR of 1-year mortality 0.70 (95% CI: 0.48-1.00). Users of the different SUs appeared to have similar risks of new MI and heart failure following MI.
The prognosis after MI was not substantially influenced by the choice of SU.