The aims of this study were to determine the magnitude of the increase in fracture risk after hospitalization for stroke, and in particular to determine the time course of this risk.
The records of the Swedish register of patients admitted during 1987-1996 were examined to identify all patients who were admitted to the hospital for stroke. Patients were followed for subsequent hospitalizations for hip and all fractures combined. We analyzed 16.3 million hospitalizations, from which 273 288 individuals with stroke were identified. A Poisson model was used to determine the absolute risk of subsequent fractures and the risk compared with that of the general population.
After hospitalization for stroke, there was a >7-fold increase in fracture risk, including that for hip fracture within the first year after hospitalization for stroke. Thereafter, fracture risk declined toward, but did not attain, the baseline risk except in men and women aged >/=80 years.
The high incidence of new fractures within the first year of hospitalization for stroke suggests that such patients should be preferentially targeted for treatment. It is possible that short courses of treatment at the time of stroke would provide important therapeutic dividends.
The aims of this study were to determine the magnitude of the increase in risk of further fracture following hospitalization for vertebral fracture, and in particular to determine the time course of this risk. The records of the Swedish Patient Register were examined from 1987 to 1994 to identify all patients who were admitted to hospital for thoracic or lumbar vertebral fractures. Vertebral fractures were characterized as due to high- or low-energy trauma. Patients were followed for subsequent hospitalizations for hip fracture, and for all fractures combined. A Poisson model was used to determine the absolute risk of subsequent nonvertebral fracture and compared with that of the general population. We analyzed 13.4 million hospital admissions from which 28,869 individuals with vertebral fracture were identified, of which 60% were associated with low-energy trauma. There was a marked increase in subsequent incidence of hip and all fractures within the first year following hospitalization for vertebral fracture in both men and women. Thereafter, fracture incidence declined toward, but did not attain, baseline risk. Increased risks were particularly marked in the young. The increase in fracture risk was more marked following low-energy vertebral fracture than in the case of high-energy trauma. We conclude that the high incidence of new fractures within a year of hospitalization for vertebral fractures, irrespective of the degree of trauma involved, indicates that such patients should be preferentially targeted for treatment. It is speculated that short courses of treatment at the time of first vertebral fracture could provide important therapeutic dividends.
The age- and sex-specific incidence of hip fractures was studied over a period of 30 years. There was a continuous increase in incidence over the years. The trend was most obvious in the oldest age groups and in men.
The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporosis as judged by hip fracture and the burden in different socio-economic regions of the world. The population mortality in 1990 and the incidence of hip fracture in different regions were identified, where possible in 1990. Excess mortality from hip fracture used data for Sweden, and disability weights were assigned to survivors from hip fracture. In 1990 there were an estimated 1.31 million new hip fractures, and the prevalence of hip fractures with disability was 4.48 million. There were 740,000 deaths estimated to be associated with hip fracture. There were 1.75 million disability adjusted life-years lost, representing 0.1% of the global burden of disease world-wide and 1.4% of the burden amongst women from the established market economies. We conclude that hip fracture is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Are the findings in the Swedish National Total Hip Arthroplasty Register valid? A comparison between the Swedish National Total Hip Arthroplasty Register, the National Discharge Register, and the National Death Register.
The Swedish National Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) Register was initiated in 1979, and it is one of the oldest quality registers in the world. The register covers all hospitals in Sweden, and today it contains > 205,000 hip arthroplasties. The failure endpoint definition in the register is revision. There is no information about quality of life and mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the results presented by the Swedish THA register by comparison with the Discharge register (the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare) and to study mortality after hip arthroplasties. All hip arthroplasties from the Discharge register, performed in 1986 and thereafter, were compared with the Swedish THA register. Epidemiologic parameters, including mortality, were documented from the Swedish Death register. The mortality for primary THAs for men was 1% higher and for women 6% higher when compared with an age-matched and sex-matched cohort. For revision, the numbers were 7% and 9% higher. The risk for death compared with an age-matched and sex-matched population was lower for patients with osteoarthrosis treated with hip arthroplasty. The results with revision as failure endpoint showed that the Swedish THA register is reliable. The register includes >95% of the primary and revision THAs performed in Sweden between 1986 and 1995.
Patients with fragility fractures have low bone mineral density (BMD)--this statement is supported mainly by data on women. In this study, including only men, the objectives were to determine whether a decline in BMD alone or in combination with data on male sex hormones and skinfold thickness could be of value in predicting forthcoming fractures. We also wanted to find out whether high consumers of alcohol can be identified by measuring BMDs and male sex hormones. A prospective, population-based study was performed in the city of Malmö, Sweden. 242 men were randomly selected; all were of Scandinavian ethnic background, and were aged 50, 60, 70, and 80 years. Forearm BMD, testosterone, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and skinfold thickness were analyzed. In addition, alcohol consumption and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)--a marker of alcohol abuse--were analyzed. The study group was followed prospectively for 7 years and all fractures sustained were recorded. Prospectively, for a 1 SD decrease in forearm BMD, the Cox proportional hazard model gave a relative risk (RR) of 1.75 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.08-2.83 for a forthcoming fracture and 3.88 (1.30-11.57) for a hip fracture. For a 1 SD change in skinfold thickness, measured on the dorsum of the hand, a RR of 1.69 (0.99-2.87) for a forthcoming fracture was found and the corresponding value for hip fracture was 2.34 (1.10-5.00). Testosterone and SHBG did not enhance fracture prediction. Abusers of alcohol had, retrospectively, significantly more fractures. Individuals with alcohol consumption rates in the highest quartile had significantly higher CDT levels, but we were unable to identify high consumers of alcohol by analyzing BMD or sex hormones. In this study we found that forearm BMD and skinfold thickness could be used in predicting forthcoming fractures in men.
Comparisons were made between 133 men with cervical fractures and 151 men with trochanteric fractures and 308 women with cervical fractures and 449 women with trochanteric fractures. All patients with hip fractures were studied consecutively and prospectively. Patients were interviewed a few days after admission and their medical records studied. We found great differences in background factors between patients with cervical and trochanteric fractures but these differences seemed to depend largely on age. In an age-matched material we find that patients with trochanteric fractures are more prone to such fragility fractures as vertebral fracture, trochanteric fracture and fracture of the upper end of the humerus. This could mean that trochanteric fractures occur in bone of lower trabecular mass.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in standing balance and gait performance between two populations, correlated with age and physical activities of daily living. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Malmö, the third largest city in Sweden, and Sjöbo, a typical agricultural community 60 km east of Malmö. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 570 men and women from the urban community (urban) and 391 from the rural community (rural), born in 1938, 1928, 1918, and 1908, and women born in 1948. The two cohorts were subdivided into true urbans, who had lived only in the city (n = 269), and true rurals, who had never lived in a city (n = 354). MEASUREMENTS: Information about workload, housing, spare time activities, medication, and illness during different decades of life was gathered using two questionnaires. The first questionnaire was sent to the home after agreement to participate, and the second was presented at the test session. The clinical measurements were standing balance, gait speed, and step length. RESULTS: The urban subjects had significantly (P
Several previous studies have reported regional differences in the incidence of hip fractures. A population-based study was performed in the city of MalmÃ¶ (urban population) and in the municipality of SjÃ¶bo (rural population), 60 km apart. A total of 961 men and women, randomly selected and of Scandinavian ethnic background, participated in the study. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the forearm was measured with single-photon absorptiometry (SPA). Women and men in the city had significantly lower BMC compared with the rural population. The differences were even more pronounced when comparing a true urban population (lived their entire life in a city) with a true rural population (never lived in a city). The differences in BMC between MalmÃ¶ and SjÃ¶bo were more obvious in men. These data suggest that differences in bone mass between an urban and a rural population could to some extent explain differences in fracture incidence.
We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in 128 men and 143 women, aged 22-90, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS). We found reduced bone mineral density in relation to age as measured both by DEXA and QUS. There was a correlation between 0.28 and 0.52 in men and between 0.53 and 0.77 in women when comparing DEXA and QUS measurements. When including only persons with low bone mass, the correlation was less.