The article presents public health system characterized by public responsibility for health of citizen under various forms of property. The issues of management, planning, financing and organization of health care are discussed.
A study, held in the Krasnodar Territory in 1994-2002, showed an increasing morbidity in residents of all age-categories. Essential differences in the prevalence of registered pathologies and in the nature of their dynamics were registered in some districts. An optimized structure of hospital beds resulted, in the above Territory, in a reduced quantity of beds, primarily in rural areas, and in their more effective utilization. More rural citizens applied for medical care to urban and territorial patient-care facilities, by 1.5 and 1.4 times respectively. Such reduction of hospital beds is possible only after advancing appropriately the regular medical check-ups and clinical care and after diminishing the need in the treatment of patients at hospitals. The data of sociological questioning of residents and of doctors held in three municipal entities by using the method of monitoring are presented. It was demonstrated that promotion of inter-district diagnostic centers, priority development of regular medical check-ups and purpose-oriented measures of reprofiling the specialized bed funds are topical issues in promoting the municipal medical care.
Coordination and interaction in public health management are analyzed. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop an effective interdepartmental coordination system regulated by federal legal and normative order documents.
The authors analyze the specific features of the present medical and demographic situation in the Russian Federation, the naturally research regularities determining the evolution and development direction of population processes in the 20th century by using the populational advance to the demographic transition to the present-day reproduction as an example. Socioeconomic factors affecting the demographic structure of society are considered.