We used genome wide expression (GWE) data of circulating blood cells and pathway analysis to investigate the inflammatory and other molecular pathways that may be associated with long-standing depressive symptoms. Participants were 607 women and 316 men (mean age 42 years) from the Young Finns Study who participated in three consecutive study phases in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Using Gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA) we focused our analyses to pathways (available in MSigDB database) that are likely to affect immunological and inflammatory processes. GSEA were performed for blood cell GWE data in 2012. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified 21-item Beck Depression Inventory in each of the three study phases. Participants who scored in the top quartile of depressive symptoms in each of the three measurement points (n = 191) differed from other participants (n = 732) in several gene-set pathways related to inflammatory processes or immune-inflammatory signaling including interleukin (IL-1) pathway, and pathways related to various immuno-inflammatory processes, such as toll-like, the NEF protein, the nuclear factor kB, the kinase AKT and the mature B cell antigen receptor pathway (false discovery rates, FDRs
Laboratory of Atherosclerosis Genetics, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital and the Medical School at the University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland. email@example.com
Individuals suffering from ATH (adult-type hypolactasia), defined by the LCT (gene encoding lactase-phlorizin hydrolase) C/C(-13910) genotype (rs4988235), use less milk and dairy products and may have higher plasma HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and lower triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations than their counterparts without ATH. To investigate the effects of ATH status on the early markers of atherosclerosis, we examined its association with CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness), CAC (carotid artery compliance) and brachial artery FMD (flow-mediated dilation) in a young population-based cohort of otherwise healthy individuals. As part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, we performed CIMT, CAC and FMD analyses, LCT C/T(-13910) genotyping and risk factor determination in 2109 young subjects 24-39 years of age (45% males) at the time of the examination. The consumption of both milk and dairy products was lowest and the consumption of alcohol highest in subjects with the C/C(-13910) genotype (P
Association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) bone traits at the distal and shaft sites of the radius and tibia was evaluated in the Young Finns Cohort (n=1777). We also analyzed the interactions of the APOE promoter polymorphisms (-219G/T rs405509 and +113G/C rs440446) and bone traits within the APOE e3/e3 genotype (n=1025 and n=1013, respectively), and investigated the gene-environment interactions on bone traits with longitudinal saturated fatty acids (SAFA) intake. Differences between the e4 allele carriers and noncarriers were modest and mostly nonsignificant. Within the APOE promoter -219G/T polymorphism, cortical strength index (CSI) and compressive bone strength index (BSI) at the distal radius (linear, P=0.003 and P=0.05, respectively) and tibia (linear, P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively), and CSI at the tibial shaft (linear, P=0.04) decreased towards the -219T/T genotype in women. In men, total cross-sectional areas at the radial site and stress-strain index (SSI) at the radial shaft (linear, P=0.03 and P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively) increased, and conversely cortical bone density and CSI at the radial shaft (linear, P=0.005 and P=0.05, respectively) and CSI at the tibial shaft (linear, P=0.03) decreased towards the -219T/T genotype. In the highest SAFA tertile, women with the -219T/T genotype had the smallest total area and SSI at the radial shaft (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). Subjects with the APOE +113C/C genotype shared similar bone traits as subjects with the APOE -219T/T genotype. In conclusion, APOE genotypes -219T/T and +113C/C could be genetic markers for cortical bone strength. Furthermore, high longitudinal SAFA intake seems to be more detrimental to bone in women with the -219T/T and +133C/C genotypes than others.
Prediabetes often occurs together with dyslipidaemia, which is paradoxically treated with statins predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined peripheral blood pathway profiles in prediabetic subjects with (PRD ) and without dyslipidaemia (PR0 ) and compared these to nonprediabetic controls without dyslipidaemia (C0 ).
The participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, including 1240 subjects aged 34 to 49 years. Genome-wide expression data of peripheral blood and gene set enrichment analysis were used to investigate the differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways between different subtypes of prediabetes.
Pathways for cholesterol synthesis, interleukin-12-mediated signalling events, and downstream signalling in naïve CD8+ T-cells were upregulated in the PR0 group in comparison with controls (C0 ). The upregulation of these pathways was independent of waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, and insulin. Adjustment for CRP left the CD8+ T-cell signalling and interleukin-12-mediated signalling event pathway upregulated. The cholesterol synthesis pathway was also upregulated when all prediabetic subjects (PR0 and PRD ) were compared with the nonprediabetic control group. No pathways were upregulated or downregulated when the PRD group was compared with the C0 group. Five genes in the PR0 group and 1 in the PRD group were significantly differentially expressed in comparison with the C0 group.
Blood cell gene expression profiles differ significantly between prediabetic subjects with and without dyslipidaemia. Whether this classification may be used in detection of prediabetic individuals at a high risk of cardiovascular complications remains to be examined.
The functional val108/158met polymorphism of the COMT gene (rs4680) was evaluated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and in the treatment response to antidepressants in MDD. We could not demonstrate any significant difference in the distribution of this COMT single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the treatment response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or between patients with MDD and control subjects.
Genetic profiling using genome-wide significant coronary artery disease risk variants does not improve the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, the Bogalusa Heart Study and the Health 2000 Survey--a meta-analysis of three independent studies.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a large number of variants (SNPs) associating with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, the CARDIoGRAM consortium published a GWAS based on the largest study population so far. They successfully replicated twelve already known associations and discovered thirteen new SNPs associating with CAD. We examined whether the genetic profiling of these variants improves prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis--i.e., carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid artery elasticity (CAE)--beyond classical risk factors.
We genotyped 24 variants found in a population of European ancestry and measured CIMT and CAE in 2001 and 2007 from 2,081, and 2,015 subjects (aged 30-45 years in 2007) respectively, participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS). The Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS; n?=?1179) was used as a replication cohort (mean age of 37.5). For additional replication, a sub-sample of 5 SNPs was genotyped for 1,291 individuals aged 46-76 years participating in the Health 2000 population survey. We tested the impact of genetic risk score (GRS(24SNP/CAD)) calculated as a weighted (by allelic odds ratios for CAD) sum of CAD risk alleles from the studied 24 variants on CIMT, CAE, the incidence of carotid atherosclerosis and the progression of CIMT and CAE during a 6-year follow-up.
CIMT or CAE did not significantly associate with GRS(24SNP/CAD) before or after adjusting for classical CAD risk factors (p>0.05 for all) in YFS or in the BHS. CIMT and CAE associated with only one SNP each in the YFS. The findings were not replicated in the replication cohorts. In the meta-analysis CIMT or CAE did not associate with any of the SNPs.
Genetic profiling, by using known CAD risk variants, should not improve risk stratification for subclinical atherosclerosis beyond conventional risk factors among healthy young adults.
The relative contribution of genetic risk factors to the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis is poorly understood. It is likely that multiple variants are implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, but the subtle genotypic and phenotypic differences are beyond the reach of the conventional case-control designs and the statistical significance testing procedures being used in most association studies. Our objective here was to investigate whether an alternative approach--in which common disorders are treated as quantitative phenotypes that are continuously distributed over a population--can reveal predictive insights into the early atherosclerosis, as assessed using ultrasound imaging-based quantitative measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Using our population-based follow-up study of atherosclerosis precursors as a basis for sampling subjects with gradually increasing IMT levels, we searched for such subsets of genetic variants and their interactions that are the most predictive of the various risk classes, rather than using exclusively those variants meeting a stringent level of statistical significance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the predictive value of the variants, and cross-validation was used to assess how well the predictive models will generalize to other subsets of subjects. By means of our predictive modeling framework with machine learning-based SNP selection, we could improve the prediction of the extreme classes of atherosclerosis risk and progression over a 6-year period (average AUC 0.844 and 0.761), compared to that of using conventional cardiovascular risk factors alone (average AUC 0.741 and 0.629), or when combined with the statistically significant variants (average AUC 0.762 and 0.651). The predictive accuracy remained relatively high in an independent validation set of subjects (average decrease of 0.043). These results demonstrate that the modeling framework can utilize the "gray zone" of genetic variation in the classification of subjects with different degrees of risk of developing atherosclerosis.
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jan 20;150(2):65-7219153409
Cites: Am J Cardiol. 2009 Feb 1;103(3):375-8019166692
The MSR1 gene maps to 8p22-23, a novel susceptibility locus for hereditary prostate cancer (HPC). Mutations in MSR1 have been reported to associate with prostate cancer (PRCA) risk. Here we report a follow-up study from Finland to evaluate the association between PRCA and MSR1 gene.
The youngest affected patient from each of 120 HPC families was initially used for the screening of MSR1 mutations by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Selected variants of MSR1 gene were then screened in 537 unselected PRCA cases and in 480 controls.
Among 120 HPC families, five MSR1 sequence variants were identified. The carrier frequencies of the R293X, P275A, and -14743A>G variants were compared between the probands with HPC, unselected PRCA cases, and healthy male blood donors. No significant differences were observed. The odds ratios for R293X, P275A, and -14743A>G mutations were also calculated to estimate the PRCA risk. No significantly elevated or lowered risks for PRCA among these three variants were detected. However, the mean age at diagnosis of the R293X mutation carriers among HPC probands was significantly lower compared with noncarriers (55.4 versus 65.4 years; t test, P = 0.04). The same trend was observed among unselected PRCA cases (65.7 versus 68.7 years; t test, P = 0.37).
Our results do not support a major role for the MSR1 gene in the causation of hereditary or unselected PRCAs but suggest a possible modifying role in cancer predisposition.
The RNASEL gene (2',5'-oligoisoadenylate-synthetase dependent) encodes a ribonuclease that mediates the antiviral and apoptotic activities of interferons. The RNASEL gene maps to the hereditary-prostate-cancer (HPC)-predisposition locus at 1q24-q25 (HPC1) and was recently shown to harbor truncating mutations in two families with linkage to HPC1. Here, we screened for RNASEL germline mutations in 66 Finnish patients with HPC, and we determined the frequency of the changes in the index patients from 116 families with HPC, in 492 patients with unselected prostate cancer (PRCA), in 223 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and in 566 controls. A truncating mutation, E265X, was found in 5 (4.3%) of the 116 patients from families with HPC. This was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR] =4.56; P=.04) than the frequency of E265X in controls (1.8%). The highest mutation frequency (9.5%) was found in patients from families with four or more affected members. Possible segregation was detected only in a single family. However, the median age at disease onset for E265X carriers was 11 years less than that for noncarriers in the same families. In addition, of the four missense variants found, R462Q showed an association with HPC (OR=1.96; P=.07). None of the variants showed any differences between controls and either patients with BPH or patients with PRCA. We conclude that, although RNASEL mutations do not explain disease segregation in Finnish families with HPC, the variants are enriched in families with HPC that include more than two affected members and may also be associated with the age at disease onset. This suggests a possible modifying role in cancer predisposition. The impact that the RNASEL sequence variants have on PRCA burden at the population level seems small but deserves further study.
Cites: Cancer Res. 2001 Jul 1;61(13):4982-411431329
Laboratory of Atherosclerosis Genetics, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Tampere, Finland Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Interleukin 18(IL-18) is a pro-atherosclerotic cytokine. Elevated IL-18 levels and the genetic variation of the IL-18 have been previously linked with acute coronary events and cardiovascular mortality among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied the possible association between the IL-18 gene polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality during follow-up among Finnish patients who had undergone a clinical exercise stress test, in addition to the possible effect on the expression of angiography-verified CAD.
A total of 2152 patients of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (cohort study) were followed up for 6·3years and cardiovascular mortality was recorded. Angiography was performed on 461 patients. Genotyping of five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-18 gene was performed using the 5'nuclease assay for allelic discrimination with the ABI Prism 7900HT Sequence Detection System.
Among the study population, IL-18 gene polymorphism did not associate with cardiovascular mortality. According to adjusted binary regression analysis, the male carriers of one major haplotype (the only ones carrying the t allele of the +127 C/t SNP) had a lower occurrence rate for significant CAD defined as > 50% stenosis in at least one of the main branches of the coronary arteries (OR 0·495, 95% CI 0·862-0·284, P=0·041). No associations were observed among women. The sex-by-genotype interaction was significant (P=0·033).
The IL-18 gene was not found to associate significantly with mortality. Among patients who had coronary angiography, one major haplotype of the IL-18 gene has a gender-dependent different impact on the expression of CAD.