Consuming a diet lower in total fat is important for the prevention of many chronic diseases. Individual and population-based programs targeting this behavior must be theoretically grounded and consider the context within which dietary behavior change may be attempted. To identify the factors differentiating stage of readiness to follow a low-fat diet, a sample (N=1216) of adults was surveyed using 4 different staging algorithms to assess stages of change and associated social-cognitive variables (pros, cons, and temptation). Approximately 75% of the sample occupied the Action/Maintenance stages for all staging algorithms. In general, pros increased and cons decreased with higher stage occupation. Temptation decreased from the early pre-action to the action stages for the different staging algorithms. When developing programs to decrease dietary-fat intake, social-cognitive variables associated with stage transition for behaviors related to consuming a low-fat diet may have relevance to researchers and clinicians.
This study examines the incidence of cancer among Chinese immigrants to Alberta in comparison to the incidence in Canadian-born Alberta residents and in people of Chinese origin still living in China. Cancer cases among Chinese immigrants and Canadian-born Alberta residents were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry (1974-1993). Incidence rates for Shanghai (1975-1992) were obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) publications. Direct age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) were calculated using the "world standard population." Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression modelling were employed to obtain the rate ratios for certain cancer sites among the three populations. For males, the overall incidence of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) was lowest in Chinese immigrants while being similar in Canadian-born Alberta residents and Chinese living in Shanghai (197 vs. 224 and 232/100,000). For females, the overall incidence in Chinese immigrants was lower than Canadian-born Alberta residents but similar to that in Chinese living in Shanghai (154 vs 200 and 150/100,000). For cancers that are common in China (stomach and esophagus), the incidence rates for Chinese immigrants were more similar to those for Canadian-born residents than to rates for Shanghai. However, the incidence of liver cancer was very high in the immigrants, suggesting the possible presence of an initiating event during childhood or early adulthood. For cancers that are traditionally uncommon in China (breast and prostate), rates for immigrants were mid-way between those of the two comparison groups. This study supports observations that the risk of cancer in immigrants tends towards the risk of people in the new host country.
Chlorination disinfection by-products (CDBPs) are produced during the treatment of water with chlorine to remove bacterial contamination. CDBPs have been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. There is also some evidence that they may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. We report results from a population-based case-control study of 486 incident cases of pancreatic cancer and 3,596 age- and sex-matched controls. Exposure to chlorination by-products was estimated by linking lifetime residential histories to two different databases containing information on CDBP levels in municipal water supplies. Logistic regression analysis found no evidence of increased pancreatic cancer risk at higher CDBP concentrations (all odds ratios
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Erratum In: Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):A511
Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public Health/Faculty of Physical Education, University of Alberta, 5-10A University Extension Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. email@example.com
Physical activity plays a key role in diabetes management, and in reducing the risk factors related to the development of co-morbid conditions. This study examined predictors of physical activity (Static Model) and activity change (Change Model) for individuals with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a population sample of 1662 adults (510 type 1; 1152 type 2) using self-reported measures of co-morbidities, perceived difficulties in performing tasks of daily living (TDL), time since diagnosis, and selected demographic factors. Since the motivation for physical activity could be influenced by the initial diagnosis of diabetes, analyses were conducted separately for newly diagnosed individuals (diagnosed with diabetes 1 year). In the Static Model, a younger age (beta=-.11, p1 year, but not in newly diagnosed individuals. A shorter duration of disease (beta=-.07, p
Although testicular cancer is a relatively rare lesion, accounting for only 1.1% of all malignant neoplasms in males in Canada, it is the most common cancer among Canadian men 20-45 years of age. Knowledge of the causes of testicular cancer risk in general, and more specifically, its association with diet, remain limited. Data from 601 cases of testicular cancer and 744 population-based controls collected in 8 of the 10 Canadian provinces between 1994-97 were used to explore the relationship between diet and testicular cancer risk. We systematically examined 17 food groups, 15 nutrients and 4 individual foods based on data collected through a 69-item food-frequency questionnaire. Our results suggest that high dairy product intake, in particular high intake of cheese (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-2.86; p-trend
To compare the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials for physical activity (PA) change.
Participants were randomized into (1) a stage-matched intervention group (n = 165), (2) a standard intervention group (n = 176), or (3) a no-contact control group (n = 166). The stage-matched and standard intervention groups both received materials at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Assessments of all three groups were conducted at baseline, 6, and 12 months.
Employees (N = 507).
Five motivationally targeted booklets were developed for the stage-matched group. The standard group received Canada's Physical Activity Guide and handbook.
The main dependent variable was PA, expressed as metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes and measured using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Demographic characteristics and stages of change for PA were also assessed.
At 12 months mean weekly MET minutes for combined moderate and vigorous activity increased from baseline by 223, 67, and 78 for the stage-matched, standard, and control groups, respectively; however, differences were not significant (p > .05). Women in the stage-matched group over the 12-month period significantly increased their activity by 327 weekly MET minutes whereas the standard and control groups declined their activity (F = 3.01, p
An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).
Stages of change are related to dietary fat consumption. Few studies have examined stage occupation within the context of purchasing low-fat foods.
To determine the stage-prevalence of individuals for purchasing low-fat foods; identify the frequency of misclassification into action and maintenance (A/M) stages for purchasing for low-fat foods; and explain the demographic and cognitive-variable differences between pseudo (or false positive) A/M and true A/M individuals.
Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire among English-speaking adults (n=1,001) who were randomly sampled by mail.
Descriptive statistics were used to compare the characteristics of the stage groups. Groups were compared using chi(2) tests and Student t test.
Of those who reported being in A/M stages, 32% were misclassified by the staging algorithm and were not true A/M low-fat food purchasers.
Individuals who are in A/M stages for buying low-fat foods still purchase high-fat foods. Stage misclassification may be a persistent problem in studies of dietary change using the Transtheoretical Model.