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Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277047
Source
Appetite. 2016 Jan 1;96:432-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2016
Author
Elisabeth L Melbye
Ingunn H Bergh
Solveig E S Hausken
Ester F C Sleddens
Kari Glavin
Nanna Lien
Mona Bjelland
Source
Appetite. 2016 Jan 1;96:432-42
Date
Jan-1-2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Carbonated Beverages
Cross-Sectional Studies
Feeding Behavior - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Impulsive Behavior
Linear Models
Male
Norway
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.
PubMed ID
26456410 View in PubMed
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Adolescents' prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112462
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:89
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Torunn H Totland
Mona Bjelland
Nanna Lien
Ingunn H Bergh
Mekdes K Gebremariam
May Grydeland
Yngvar Ommundsen
Lene F Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway. t.h.totland@medisin.uio.no
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:89
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Child
Child Behavior
Computers
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Fathers
Female
Gender Identity
Health Behavior
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mothers
Norway
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sedentary lifestyle
Self Report
Sex Factors
Television
Video Games
Abstract
The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined.
A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years.
Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further studies including both parents and their children should be emphasized. Moreover, maternal and paternal modelling were found to be important target variables in interventions aiming to reduce social differences by parental education in adolescents' prospective time spent on TV/DVD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23829607 View in PubMed
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Associations between physical home environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds: the BRA-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290267
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 May; 20(7):1173-1183
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Date
May-2017
Author
Anne Lene Kristiansen
Mona Bjelland
Anne Himberg-Sundet
Nanna Lien
Lene Frost Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition,Institute of Basic Medical Sciences,University of Oslo,PO Box 1046 Blindern,0316 Oslo,Norway.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 May; 20(7):1173-1183
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Keywords
Adult
Child, Preschool
Choice Behavior
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Preferences
Fruit
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Norway
Nutrition Assessment
Parent-Child Relations
Pilot Projects
Principal Component Analysis
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Young Adult
Abstract
First, to explore item pools developed to measure the physical home environment of pre-school children and assess the psychometric properties of these item pools; second, to explore associations between this environment and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds.
Data were collected in three steps: (i) a parental web-based questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing the child's vegetable consumption; (ii) direct observation of the children's fruit, berry and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten; and (iii) a parental web-based 24 h recall.
The target group for this study was pre-school children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in the counties of Vestfold and Buskerud, Norway.
A total of 633 children participated.
Principal component analysis on the thirteen-item pool assessing availability/accessibility resulted in two factors labelled 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home', while the eight-item pool assessing barriers resulted in two factors labelled 'serving barriers' and 'purchase barriers'. The psychometric properties of these factors were satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed generally positive associations with 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home' and negative associations with 'serving barriers'.
This age group has so far been understudied and there is a need for comparable studies. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting the physical home environment of pre-school children in future interventions as there are important modifiable factors that both promote and hinder vegetable consumption in this environment.
PubMed ID
27995831 View in PubMed
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Associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year olds: BRA-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291600
Source
Appetite. 2017 Oct 01; 117:310-320
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-01-2017
Author
Anne Lene Kristiansen
Mona Bjelland
Anne Himberg-Sundet
Nanna Lien
Lene Frost Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: a.l.kristiansen@medisin.uio.no.
Source
Appetite. 2017 Oct 01; 117:310-320
Date
Oct-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena - ethnology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Family Characteristics - ethnology
Female
Fruit
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice - ethnology
Healthy Diet - ethnology
Humans
Male
Norway
Nutrition Surveys
Parenting - ethnology
Parents
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Principal Component Analysis
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
Vegetables
Abstract
The home environment is the first environment to shape childhood dietary habits and food preferences, hence greater understanding of home environmental factors associated with vegetable consumption among young children is needed. The objective has been to examine questionnaire items developed to measure the sociocultural home environment of children focusing on vegetables and to assess the psychometric properties of the resulting factors. Further, to explore associations between the environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5 year olds. Parents (n 633) were invited to participate and filled in a questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing this, along with a 24-h recall of their child's fruit and vegetable intake. Children's fruit and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten were observed by researchers. Principal components analysis was used to examine items assessing the sociocultural home environment. Encouragement items resulted in factors labelled "reactive encouragement", "child involvement" and "reward". Modelling items resulted in the factors labelled "active role model" and "practical role model". Items assessing negative parental attitudes resulted in the factor labelled "negative parental attitudes" and items assessing family pressure/demand resulted in the factor labelled "family demand". The psychometric properties of the factors were for most satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed, as expected, generally positive associations with "child involvement", "practical role model" and "family demand", and negative associations with "negative parental attitudes" and "reward". Unexpectedly, "reactive encouragement" was negatively associated with vegetable consumption. In conclusion, associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and children's vegetable consumption showed both expected and unexpected associations some of which differed by maternal education - pointing to a need for further comparable studies.
PubMed ID
28676449 View in PubMed
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Changes in adolescents' intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and sedentary behaviour: results at 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study--a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133662
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:63
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Mona Bjelland
Ingunn H Bergh
May Grydeland
Knut-Inge Klepp
Lene F Andersen
Sigmund A Anderssen
Yngvar Ommundsen
Nanna Lien
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. mona.bjelland@medisin.uio.no
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:63
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Beverages
Child
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage
Female
Food Habits - psychology
Food Preferences - psychology
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Norway
Obesity - prevention & control
Parenting
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Schools
Sedentary lifestyle
Self Report
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweetening Agents
Television
Abstract
Inconsistent effects of school-based obesity prevention interventions may be related to how different subgroups receive them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention program, including fact sheets to parents and classroom components, on intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and screen time. Further, to explore whether potential effects and parental involvement varied by adolescents' gender, weight status (WS) and parental educational level.
In total, 1465 11-year-olds participated at the pre-test and the 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study. Parents (n = 349) contributed with process evaluation data. Self-reported intake of SSB was collected from the 11-year-olds assessing frequency and amount, while time used on watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use (weekday and weekend day) were assed by frequency measures. Data on awareness of the intervention and dose received were collected from parents. Covariance analyses (ANCOVA) were conducted testing for effects by gender and for moderation by WS and parental education.
Time spent on TV/DVD (week p = 0.001, weekend p = 0.03) and computer/game-use (week p = 0.004, weekend p
Notes
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PubMed ID
21679476 View in PubMed
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Changes in diet through adolescence and early adulthood: longitudinal trajectories and association with key life transitions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297382
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 09 10; 15(1):86
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-10-2018
Author
Eleanor M Winpenny
Esther M F van Sluijs
Martin White
Knut-Inge Klepp
Bente Wold
Nanna Lien
Author Affiliation
Centre for Diet and Activity Research & MRC Epidemiology Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ew470@cam.ac.uk.
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 09 10; 15(1):86
Date
09-10-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Diet - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Life Change Events
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Norway
Obesity
Weight Gain
Young Adult
Abstract
Early adulthood is a period associated with poor diet and rapid weight gain. This is also an age of transition, including environmental, social and lifestyle changes which may be associated with changes in diet. We assess longitudinal associations between four early adulthood life transitions (leaving home, leaving education, entering employment, and cohabitation) and changes in consumption of fruit, vegetables, confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs).
Participants (n?=?1100) from the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study, reported data on diet and life transitions on up to eight occasions from age 14 to age 30. Diet data were self-reported in response to questions on intake of fruit, vegetables, confectionery and sugar-sweetened beverages. Growth models were developed to describe changing intake of each of the four diet indicators with age. Fixed-effects regression models assessed associations between the four life transitions and within-individual changes in diet indicators, with adjustment for the remaining transitions and parenthood.
Diet indicators showed quadratic trajectories with age: fruit and vegetable intakes declined from age 14 to ages 23 and 21 respectively, before increasing to age 30. SSB and confectionery intakes increased to age 18, before subsequently decreasing. Leaving the parental home was associated with a decrease in fruit intake of -?0.54 times/week (95% confidence interval (95%CI): -0.87;-0.22) and vegetable intake of -?0.43 times/week (95%CI: -0.70;-0.15). Leaving education was associated with increases in confectionery (0.33 times/week (95%CI: 0.04;0.62)) and SSB intakes (0.49 times/week (95%CI: 0.10;0.87).
Leaving home and leaving education are associated with negative changes in diet and may present opportunities for effective diet and obesity intervention. Further study of these transitions is needed to understand the mechanisms mediating associations between life transitions and changes in diet.
PubMed ID
30200990 View in PubMed
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Consumption of vegetables at dinner in a cohort of Norwegian adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159009
Source
Appetite. 2008 Jul;51(1):90-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Kristine Vejrup
Nanna Lien
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Department of Nutrition, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Appetite. 2008 Jul;51(1):90-6
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena - physiology
Cohort Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Habits
Food Preferences
Food Supply
Fruit
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Sex Distribution
Social Class
Vegetables
Abstract
This longitudinal study examined the frequency of consumption of vegetables for dinner by Norwegian adolescents and their parents. Associations of perceived availability, correlations and stability were explored. The longitudinal cohort consist of 1950 adolescents attending 6th/7th (2002) and 9th/10th (2005) grade, and their parents (n=1647). Only 40% of the adolescents and 60% of the adults reported to have eaten vegetables for dinner yesterday, the reported frequency of vegetables for dinner were 3.7 and 4.1 times/week in 2002 and 2005, respectively, and 4.8 times/week for parents. Girls ate more than boys, and high SES adolescents ate more than low SES adolescents. There were significant differences between adolescent and parent report of both frequency of consumption and perceived availability of vegetables for dinner. Adolescent's frequency of consumption of vegetables was related to the parent's consumption, and the adolescent response from 2002 to 2005 showed strong correlations. There were good tracking in the frequency of consumption of vegetables for dinner, and 25% of the adolescents showed a stable high frequency. To conclude, few adolescents and their parents consumed vegetables for dinner. Interventions are needed to meet the recommendations, and parents should be targeted in intervention programs.
PubMed ID
18243413 View in PubMed
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Correlates of weight status among Norwegian 11-year-olds: The HEIA study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118372
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1053
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
May Grydeland
Ingunn H Bergh
Mona Bjelland
Nanna Lien
Lene F Andersen
Yngvar Ommundsen
Knut-Inge Klepp
Sigmund A Anderssen
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. may.grydeland@nih.no
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1053
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Motor Activity
Norway - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Parents
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The underlying mechanisms of overweight and obesity in adolescents are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable and non-modifiable correlates of weight status among 1103 Norwegian 11-year-old adolescents in the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study, including demographic factors such as gender and parental education, and behavioral factors such as intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and breakfast consumption, watching TV and playing computer games, physical activity and sedentary time.
Weight and height were measured objectively, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define weight status. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. Other behavioral correlates and pubertal status were self-reported by questionnaires. Parental education was reported by the parents on the consent form for their child. Associations were investigated using logistic regressions.
There were gender differences in behavioral correlates of weight status but not for weight status itself. Adolescents with parents in the highest education category had a 46% reduced odds of being overweight compared to adolescents with parents in the lowest education category. Adolescents with parents with medium education had 42% lower odds of being overweight than adolescents with parents with the lowest education category. Level of parental education, breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity were positively associated with being normal weight, and time watching TV was positively associated with being overweight for the total sample. Gender differences were detected; boys had a doubled risk of being overweight for every additional hour of watching TV per week, while for girls there was no association.
The present study showed a social gradient in weight status in 11-year-olds. Both breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity were inversely associated with weight status. No associations were found between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, playing computer games and weight status. Watching TV was positively associated with weight status for boys but not for girls. Interventions are needed to gain more insight into the correlates of change in weight status.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23216675 View in PubMed
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Development of family and dietary habits questionnaires: the assessment of family processes, dietary habits and adolescents' impulsiveness in Norwegian adolescents and their parents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260951
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:130
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Mona Bjelland
Solveig E S Hausken
Ester F C Sleddens
Lene F Andersen
Hanne C Lie
Arnstein Finset
Lea Maes
Elisabeth L Melbye
Kari Glavin
Merete W Hanssen-Bauer
Nanna Lien
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:130
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Beverages
Cross-Sectional Studies
Energy Metabolism
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Habits - psychology
Health Behavior
Humans
Impulsive Behavior
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting
Parents
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweetening Agents
Vegetables
Abstract
There is a need for valid and comprehensive measures of parental influence on children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB). Such measures should be based on a theoretical framework, acknowledging the dynamic and complex nature of interactions occurring within a family. The aim of the Family & Dietary habits (F&D) project was to develop a conceptual framework identifying important and changeable family processes influencing dietary behaviours of 13-15 year olds. A second aim was to develop valid and reliable questionnaires for adolescents and their parents (both mothers and fathers) measuring these processes.
A stepwise approach was used; (1) preparation of scope and structure, (2) development of the F&D questionnaires, (3) the conducting of pilot studies and (4) the conducting of validation studies (assessing internal reliability, test-retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis) using data from a cross-sectional study.
The conceptual framework includes psychosocial concepts such as family functioning, cohesion, conflicts, communication, work-family stress, parental practices and parental style. The physical characteristics of the home environment include accessibility and availability of different food items, while family meals are the sociocultural setting included. Individual characteristics measured are dietary intake (vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages) and adolescents' impulsivity. The F&D questionnaires developed were tested in a test-retest (54 adolescents and 44 of their parents) and in a cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents (13-15 year olds), 242 mothers and 155 fathers. The samples appear to be relatively representative for Norwegian adolescents and parents. For adolescents, mothers and fathers, the test-retest reliability of the dietary intake, frequencies of (family) meals, work-family stress and communication variables was satisfactory (ICC: 0.53-0.99). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief) was included, assessing adolescent's impulsivity. The internal reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.77/0.82) and test-retest reliability values (ICC: 0.74/0.77) of BIS-Brief were good.
The conceptual framework developed may be a useful tool in guiding measurement and assessment of the home food environment and family processes related to adolescents' dietary habits, in particular and for EBRBs more generally. The results support the use of the F&D questionnaires as psychometrically sound tools to assess family characteristics and adolescent's impulsivity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25316270 View in PubMed
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Does the school food environment influence the dietary behaviours of Norwegian 11-year-olds? The HEIA study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122267
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Jul;40(5):491-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Mekdes K Gebremariam
Lene F Andersen
Mona Bjelland
Knut-Inge Klepp
Torunn H Totland
Ingunn H Bergh
Nanna Lien
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. mekdes.gebremariam@medisin.uio.no
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Jul;40(5):491-7
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Diet - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Services
Humans
Male
Norway
Schools
Social Environment
Abstract
The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the school food environment on the dietary behaviours of 11-year-old Norwegian children in elementary schools.
Baseline data from a school-based intervention study: the Health In Adolescents study was used. A total of 1425 11-year-old children from 35 schools from the eastern part of Norway were included. School administrators provided information on the physical, political, and sociocultural school food environment and students reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and snacks. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the school-level variance in dietary behaviours and to investigate the association of school food environmental factors with these dietary behaviours.
After adjustment for student characteristics, the school level accounted for a small proportion (1.1%-3.0%) of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated. None of the investigated school food environmental factors were found to be related to the children's reported intake of fruits, vegetables, snacks or SSB.
Most of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated was at the personal level. Thus in this sample, the investigated school-level factors do not appear to exert a strong influence on the dietary behaviours of children. Longitudinal studies using validated measures of the school food environment are needed.
PubMed ID
22833556 View in PubMed
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