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Experience with oseltamivir in the control of a nursing home influenza B outbreak.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195286
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2001 Mar 1;27(5):37-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2001
Author
R. Parker
N. Loewen
D. Skowronski
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser Health Region, B.C. Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2001 Mar 1;27(5):37-40
Date
Mar-1-2001
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetamides - therapeutic use
Antiviral agents - therapeutic use
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cross Infection - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Humans
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - drug therapy - epidemiology - virology
Nursing Homes
Oseltamivir
Abstract
Oseltamivir prophylaxis was very effective in protecting nursing home residents from ILI and in halting this outbreak of influenza B. A portion of the total ILI cases may have been due to influenza A, as this strain was isolated in one resident. The 10% attack rate in this facility, controlled with oseltamivir, compares favourably with another influenza B outbreak in a similar facility in the same region, over the same time frame (ILI onset 27 December to 17 January). Oseltamivir prophylaxis was not used to manage this second outbreak of laboratory-confirmed influenza B. Of the 236 residents, 45 developed ILI for an overall attack rate of 19%, nearly double the rate in the oseltamivir-controlled setting (10%). While oseltamivir was effective in controlling influenza B in this outbreak, further experience and evaluation is required before it can be routinely recommended for prophylaxis of influenza in nursing home outbreaks. Although earlier attempts by others using oseltamivir in the control of influenza A outbreaks have also met with success, it is not yet licensed for this purpose. Compared to amantadine, oseltamivir has a relatively high cost for the control of influenza A outbreaks and this may continue to limit its wider acceptance. The cost-effectiveness of oseltamivir in the control of influenza B outbreaks needs to be specifically addressed given the typically milder nature of influenza B strains. However, such a distinction is not clinically reliable and elderly residents of long-term care facilities remain vulnerable to serious complications associated with influenza infection in general. An alternate agent for influenza chemoprophylaxis that is effective against both influenza A and B, is easily administered and has few side effects, could greatly enhance current prevention and control measures and warrants serious assessment. The spread of this outbreak from the geographically separate ward to other areas of the facility in which residents had not received prophylaxis, underscores the likely role of staff as a vehicle for transmission during facility outbreaks. While accurate staff ILI rates could not be determined, their immunization rates were low, and many staff were ill during the outbreak. Isolation of residents with ILI and prophylaxis of non-ill residents on the initial outbreak wards was insufficient to prevent the spread of the outbreak, although it was subsequently halted once prophylaxis was extended to all residents. In view of the uncertainty over this medication's widespread use, in the absence of licensure or previous studies demonstrating its effectiveness in the prophylaxis and control of influenza B outbreaks, initiation of oseltamivir prophylaxis was staggered by ward. In a declared influenza A outbreak, the protocol in a long term care facility is to initiate amantadine prophylaxis on all residents, rather than ward-by-ward. While anti-viral prophylaxis may be an effective secondary control measure in the management of influenza outbreaks, optimal primary prevention would be more effective. This would require increased vaccine coverage of residents and particularly of staff, who play an important role in the importation and transmission of influenza within these facilities.
PubMed ID
11260987 View in PubMed
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Spatial assessment of major and trace element concentrations from Lower Athabasca Region Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) otoliths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298428
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 10; 655:363-373
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-10-2019
Author
R Niloshini Sinnatamby
Tracey N Loewen
Yan Luo
D Graham Pearson
Beatriz Bicalho
Iain Grant-Weaver
Chad W Cuss
Mark Poesch
William Shotyk
Author Affiliation
Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 10; 655:363-373
Date
Mar-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Hydrocarbons - chemistry
Limit of Detection
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Oil and Gas Fields
Ontario
Otolithic Membrane - chemistry
Perciformes - growth & development
Spatial Analysis
Trace Elements - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The Lower Athabasca Region (LAR) is home to the largest bitumen deposit in Alberta, and has seen industrial development related to the extraction and processing of bituminous sands since the late 1960s. Along with industrial and economic growth related to oil sands development, environmental concerns have increased in recent decades, including those about potential effects on fish. We measured major and trace element concentrations in Trout-perch otoliths from the Athabasca and Clearwater Rivers in the LAR, to illustrate spatial variations and identify possible industrial impacts. Both laser ablation ICP-MS and solution-based ICP-MS methods were employed. Of the trace elements enriched in bitumen (V, Ni, Mo and Re), only Ni and Re were above the limits of detection using at least one of the methods. The only significant differences in element concentrations between upstream and downstream locations were found for Li, Cu, and Pb which were more abundant upstream of industry. For comparison and additional perspective, otoliths from the same fish species, but taken from the Batchawana River in northern Ontario, were also examined. The fish from Alberta yielded greater concentrations of Ba, Bi, Li, Mg, Na, Re, Sc, Th and Y, but the Ontario fish had more Cr, Rb and Tl, likely because of differences in geology.
PubMed ID
30471605 View in PubMed
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Spatial assessment of major and trace element concentrations from Lower Athabasca Region Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) otoliths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296161
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Nov 12; 655:363-373
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-12-2018
Author
R Niloshini Sinnatamby
Tracey N Loewen
Yan Luo
D Graham Pearson
Beatriz Bicalho
Iain Grant-Weaver
Chad W Cuss
Mark Poesch
William Shotyk
Author Affiliation
Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Nov 12; 655:363-373
Date
Nov-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The Lower Athabasca Region (LAR) is home to the largest bitumen deposit in Alberta, and has seen industrial development related to the extraction and processing of bituminous sands since the late 1960s. Along with industrial and economic growth related to oil sands development, environmental concerns have increased in recent decades, including those about potential effects on fish. We measured major and trace element concentrations in Trout-perch otoliths from the Athabasca and Clearwater Rivers in the LAR, to illustrate spatial variations and identify possible industrial impacts. Both laser ablation ICP-MS and solution-based ICP-MS methods were employed. Of the trace elements enriched in bitumen (V, Ni, Mo and Re), only Ni and Re were above the limits of detection using at least one of the methods. The only significant differences in element concentrations between upstream and downstream locations were found for Li, Cu, and Pb which were more abundant upstream of industry. For comparison and additional perspective, otoliths from the same fish species, but taken from the Batchawana River in northern Ontario, were also examined. The fish from Alberta yielded greater concentrations of Ba, Bi, Li, Mg, Na, Re, Sc, Th and Y, but the Ontario fish had more Cr, Rb and Tl, likely because of differences in geology.
PubMed ID
30471605 View in PubMed
Less detail