Investigate the incidence of multiple sclerosis during 1953-2013 and estimate the prevalence rate of MS on 1 January 2003 and 2013 in Hordaland County, Western Norway.
All patients with onset of disease in Hordaland 1953-2013 were identified in files from previous studies until 2003 and from patient records at the departments of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital and Haugesund Hospital during 2003-2013. 1558 patients were assessed and 1402 of these were included, of whom 1035 were alive and living in Hordaland at prevalence day 1 January 2013. Annual incidence rates were calculated for 1953-2013.
On 1 January 2003, the crude prevalence rate was 191/100 000 population and on 1 January 2013, the crude prevalence rate was 211.4 (95% CI 198.3 to 224.2) per 100 000; 270.9 (95% CI 250.6 to 292.3) for women and 151.8 (95% CI 136.8 to 167.9) for men. Prevalence peaked at ages 55-59 years for women and 60-64 years for men. The annual incidence rate increased from 1.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.6) per 100 000 during 1953-1957 to 7.2 (95% CI 6.0 to 8.5) during 1978-1982 and to 8.5 (95% CI 7.3 to 9.7) during 2003-2007, thus indicating a stabilising incidence over the past 35 years. The female/male ratio ranged from 1.2:1 to 1.8:1 (p=0.381) during the period.
Stabilising rather than increasing incidence combined with the stable female/male ratio are indicative of non-fluctuating environmental factors in a geographical area otherwise characterised by lack of vitamin D effective sun exposure. The rising prevalence of MS could result from improved survival and follow-up methodology.
To assess the overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population-based cohort of patients recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with the general Norwegian population, to compare HRQoL among MS patients continuing, switching, stopping or not starting disease-modifying treatment (DMT) and to assess the motivation for DMT according to HRQoL.
A multicentre retrospective survey completed by patients recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, RRMS) during 2001-2007 at four university clinics in Norway was performed. HRQoL was measured by the SF-36 version 2 Health Survey and standardized according to the general population with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. Motivation for DMT was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).
The mean age at diagnosis was 37 years. Patients had reduced mean scores for all eight dimensions of the SF-36 with lowest scores on social functioning (mean = 31.1), mental health (mean = 32.7), general health (mean = 39.7) and vitality (mean = 40.9) compared with the general population. Continuers scored higher on mental summary scale (mean = 37.9) and lower on physical summary scale (mean = 43.8) compared with non-starters. Non-starters scored highest on physical summary scale (mean = 45.2, P = 0.007) and lowest on mental summary scale (36.1, P = 0.01) compared with continuers, stoppers and switchers. Patients with high SF-36 physical health summary score and low SF-36 mental health summary score were less motivated for using DMT.
The association of HRQoL and motivation to DMT emphasizes the need for health care personnel to inform and motivate patients to DMT, especially among patients with low mental health and otherwise high physical health and functioning.
The Multiple Sclerosis National Competence Center, Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine, Section for Neurology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
National guidelines for immunomodulatory treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) were established in Norway in 2001. However, the nation-wide treatment practice has not been evaluated since. We therefore obtained information of all patients who have received prescriptions for the approved immunomodulatory medications, interferon-beta (Betaferon, Avonex, Rebif) and glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database (Reseptregisteret). We also made a survey of patients treated with mitoxantrone (Novantrone) as well as patients supplied with immunomodulatory drugs in treatment trials. To further calculate the treatment frequency, a nation-wide prevalence of MS in Norway was estimated, based on available prevalence studies.
The estimated frequency of MS was approximately 150/100,000 in southern Norway and 100/100,000 in northern Norway. The treatment frequencies varied from 15% to 47% between the different counties with a frequency of 28% for the whole country.
Substantial differences in treatment frequencies between counties were detected, reflecting major differences in clinical practice within the country. This calls for increased focus on clinical application of the established treatment guidelines.
The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis National Competence Centre was established at the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen in 1996. Promotion of research, supervision and education of doctors and other health care professionals in Norway are the main responsibilities of the Centre. The centre has established national networks for MS care and research and has provided supervision and education of doctors and other health care professionals in Norway. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of MS have been established. The National Multiple Sclerosis Registry was established in 1998 and includes by January 2006 50-60% of all MS patients in Norway. Through a national collaboration, the registry aims for inclusion of a biobank unit for collection of cerebrospinal fluid and serum, DNA, and tissue samples.
OBJEVTIVES: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with unknown cause and without any curable treatment. Research aiming at defining the pathogenesis of the disease is therefore needed.
The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank has been established for systematic collection of clinical and epidemiological data as well as biological samples. Data collection is based on informed consent from the individual patients and recordings by the treating neurologists.
All researchers have, by application, access to data and biological samples from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank.
By this combined effort from both patients and health care personnel, the Registry and Biobank aims to facilitate research for improved understanding of disease mechanisms and improved health care in multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with unknown cause and various benefits from disease modifying therapies. Systematic recording of data into national MS registries is therefore needed to optimize treatment and define the pathogenesis of the disease. The Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was established for systematic collection of clinical and epidemiological data, as well as biological samples. Data collection is based on informed consent from the individual patients and recordings by treating neurologists. All researchers have, by application, access to data and biological samples from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank. By this combined effort from both patients and healthcare personnel, the Registry and Biobank aims to facilitate research for improved understanding of disease mechanisms and improved health care in MS.
To explore the frequency of non-starters and stoppers of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) in a cohort of people recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify reasons for non-starting or stopping DMT measured by demographic variables, social support [The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)] and disease-related stress [The Impact of Event Scale (IES)].
A multicentre retrospective cohort study using postal surveys completed by people with MS was performed, comprising all patients diagnosed with MS during 2000-2007 at four university clinics in Norway.
Of the 424 respondents, 180 (42%) were still using the first prescribed DMT, 83 (20%) were using DMT after switching DMT at least once, 53 (12.5%) had ended DMT, and 108 (25.5%) had never started DMT. The risk of non-starting DMT was associated with increasing age at diagnosis, the region, disease-related stress and avoidant trauma coping. The risk factors for stopping therapy after the first prescribed DMT were adverse events and high education.
Disease-related stress, avoidant trauma coping, age at diagnosis and education should be considered when motivating people with MS to use DMT. Hence, the challenges to starting and continuing treatment will probably also remain a problem with orally administered DMT.
Norway has been subjected to numerous epidemiological investigations on the prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS), dating back to 1935. The objective of this study was to review the studies on the prevalence and incidence of MS in Norway, provide an update on the prevalence of MS in Norway, and describe the time trends in the prevalence and incidence of MS in relation to risk factors, case ascertainment, and data. We performed a systematic search on PubMed and MEDLINE up to November 2014 using the search string 'multiple sclerosis prevalence in Norway' or 'multiple sclerosis incidence in Norway'. In addition, we scrutinized the reference lists of the publications identified for relevant citations. We retrieved data on the distribution of MS in Norway on December 31, 2013 from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank and the Norwegian Patient Registry. We identified 29 articles. From 1961 to 2014, the reported prevalence of MS increased from 20 to 203 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the incidence increased from 1.9 to 8.0 per 100,000. The nationwide crude prevalence in Norway, based on the Norwegian Patient Registry, was 208 per 100,000 on December 31, 2013. The reported prevalence of MS in Norway has increased 10-fold, with several possible causes. During eight decades, neurological health services have generally become more accessible to the population, and transforming diagnostic criteria has made the diagnosis of MS more precise and valid. There have also been changes in lifestyle behavior and known risk factors, such as vitamin D and smoking, that might have contributed to the increased incidence of MS. A possible role of increased survival in MS needs to be examined further.