The few comparative emergency room (ER) studies reported have found alcohol's role in injury occurrence to vary and suggest that regional and cultural differences in drinking patterns may account, in part, for this variation. To further this research, a probability sample of 1708 ER patients was interviewed regarding the role of alcohol in the event, usual drinking patterns, and alcohol-related problems and a urine sample was obtained to estimate blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The sample was from ERs in two Canadian provinces with distinctly different cultures: primarily English-speaking Alberta and French-speaking Quebec. While differences in demographic and drinking characteristics between injured and noninjured in both the Alberta and Quebec ERs were similar to those in other ER studies, the injured in the Alberta ER were more likely to be positive for estimated BAC; to have higher BAC levels; to report drinking prior to the event; and, among those reporting drinking, to have consumed a larger number of drinks and to report feeling drunk at the time of injury compared to those in Quebec. These differences may be associated with cultural differences in typical drinking patterns, with higher rates of abstinence reported in the Alberta ER, but also with higher rates of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems, while those in the Quebec ER were more likely to report consuming smaller quantities with greater frequency (typical of wine-drinking cultures). Additional research is needed to explicate further alcohol's role in injury occurrence for planning effective prevention strategies that are both culturally relevant and specific.
Using 1998 provincial survey data (n = 1,205), the authors examine responses to 7 items concerning public opinion on alcohol-related policy in Ontario. The purpose of the study is to get a sense of overall public opinion on certain topical policy-related measures and to see whether this opinion is predicted by demographic characteristics of respondents (sex, age and self-reported drinking pattern). Cross-tabulations of opinion items with demographic variables revealed strong majority support for the status quo with regard to number of liquor and beer stores, beer and liquor store hours, and prohibition of the sale of alcohol in corner stores. A somewhat less robust majority also supported the status quo for alcohol taxes and legal drinking age. Among the demographic groups, high-risk heavy drinkers stood out for their greater support of relaxation of controls and this finding was confirmed by means of logistic regression. The majority of all groups, except frequent bar-goers, liked the idea of warning labels on alcoholic beverage containers. The authors conclude that, according to these survey data, policy initiatives towards greater access to alcohol, such as extended liquor store hours and sale of alcohol in corner stores, are not mandated by the majority of the population of Ontario.
In 1994, regulatory changes were introduced in Ontario, Canada, permitting the purchase of alcoholic beverages with credit cards at government-operated liquor stores. Two objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the characteristics of credit card shoppers with non credit card shoppers at liquor stores, and (2) to assess whether changes occurred in alcohol consumption patterns among shoppers following the introduction of credit cards.
Random digit dialing was used to interview 2,039 telephone participants prior to the introduction of credit cards (Time 1); 1,401 of these subjects were contacted 1 year later (Time 2). Independent sample t tests were used to compare credit card shoppers with shoppers not using credit cards, and paired t tests were performed to assess whether drinking behaviors changed from Time 1 to Time 2.
The credit card shoppers were more likely than the non credit card shoppers to be highly educated (p
An overview of community-based action research projects is presented focusing on the community/research agenda interaction, the difficulties and rewards of this approach, and the unique opportunities of these projects. The potential for policy development as a result of these initiatives has not been fully explored, and some suggestions for the implementation of policies based on the results of action research projects are made. The policy implication of several specific interventions are discussed, along with the limitations and benefits of policy components within a project, rather than as spin-offs. The paper concludes with suggestions for planning community action projects to enhance the policy formulation aspect of these projects.
The primary goal of this study was to identify demographic and substance use factors associated with violent injuries, accidental injuries, and medical conditions or illnesses (non-injured).
Data were examined from a sample of 1701 admissions to emergency rooms at two Canadian hospitals. These patients were interviewed and provided urine samples to detect the presence of drug metabolites for alcohol, THC, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, morphine, and codeine.
A 1994 survey of adults from a northern Ontario city contained questions about alcohol consumption, problems experienced as a result of others' drinking, and opinions concerning solutions to such problems. The 180-question survey was administered to about 900 respondents, the vast majority of whom said they had consumed alcohol within the previous 12 months. At least one in five said they had been bothered by three types of experience caused by other drinkers: loudness, humiliation, and arguments. Young adults stood out as the group most likely to experience each type of problem caused by other drinkers. There was a robust level of support for most solutions proposed, with the exception of a city ban on drinking in indoor public places. The data suggest that comprehensive prevention efforts may be more effective than those focused on a single approach geared towards only one group or person.
To project the consequences of privatizing or deregulating current alcohol retail monopolies in Ontario, Canada.
The projection is based on a multiplicative model and applied to estimate per capita alcohol consumption for four hypothetical scenarios, including both partial and complete privatization for the Province of Ontario, Canada. Those scenarios are mainly focused on the two dimensions of changes affected by privatization: alcohol physical availability and economic availability (i.e., retail prices). Various assumptions involving availability and prices are largely based on the Canadian and international research literature on deregulation/privatization.
The study showed that per capita alcohol consumption in the short/medium term is expected to increase in all four hypothetical scenarios examined, with the magnitude ranging from 11% to 27%. The sensitivity analysis also revealed a similar increase in alcohol consumption, even though the magnitude of the increase would be less for some scenarios. Therefore, any deliberations on modifying alcohol control policies are well advised to proceed with caution, since an increase in alcohol consumption is likely to be associated with elevated levels of drinking-related problems.