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Age and sex differences in genetic and environmental factors for self-rated health: a twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71966
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 May;56(3):S171-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
P. Svedberg
P. Lichtenstein
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Pia.Svedberg@mep.ki.se
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 May;56(3):S171-8
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Attitude to Health
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Mortality
Population Surveillance
Predictive value of tests
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Self-rated health has been shown to be a predictor for future health status and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-group and sex differences in genetic and environmental sources of variation for self-rated health. METHODS: A sample of twins from the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview with assessment of self-rated health. Structural equation model analyses on 1,243 complete twin pairs provided estimates of genetic and environmental components of variance. RESULTS: Individual differences primarily reflected individual specific environmental influences at all ages. The increase in total variance across age groups was primarily due to genetic influences in the age groups 45--74 years and greater environmental influences in the oldest age group (>74). No significant sex differences were found in variance components. DISCUSSION: Genetic variance in the two middle age groups (45--74) could reflect genetic susceptibility to age-dependent illnesses not yet expressed in the youngest group. The findings suggest that it might be more fruitful to explore the origins of individual differences for self-rated health in the context of an individual's age and birth cohort rather than in the context of sex.
PubMed ID
11316842 View in PubMed
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Apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele in Swedish twins and siblings with Alzheimer disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64635
Source
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1995;9(3):166-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
L. Lannfelt
N L Pedersen
L. Lilius
K. Axelman
K. Johansson
M. Viitanen
M. Gatz
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
Source
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1995;9(3):166-9
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alleles
Alzheimer Disease - genetics
Apolipoproteins E - genetics
Family
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Family
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Sweden
Twins
Abstract
Allelic frequencies of apolipoprotein epsilon 4 were compared in 13 dizygotic twin pairs and 13 sibling pairs in which at least one member has Alzheimer disease (AD). Among discordant pairs of twins and siblings, frequencies were significantly greater in affected than intact partners. There was no significant difference in allelic frequencies between twins with a positive family history and twins with a negative family history. The epsilon 4 allele was more common in the sibling sample selected for family aggregation of AD than the twin sample. Several lines of evidence indicate that while the epsilon 4 allele appears to be one risk factor for AD, other etiological factors must be considered as well.
PubMed ID
8534415 View in PubMed
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Are genetic influences on peptic ulcer dependent or independent of genetic influences for Helicobacter pylori infection?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64003
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jan 10;160(1):105-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-2000
Author
H M Malaty
D Y Graham
I. Isaksson
L. Engstrand
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. hmalaty@bcm.tmc.edu
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jan 10;160(1):105-9
Date
Jan-10-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Helicobacter Infections - complications - genetics
Helicobacter pylori
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Peptic Ulcer - genetics - microbiology
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play a role or roles in the etiology of peptic ulcer disease and the acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences as well as the importance of H. pylori on peptic ulcer disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, reared apart or together. PARTICIPANTS: Twins of the subregistry of the Swedish Twin Registry included in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. MEASUREMENTS: Peptic ulcer disease and H. pylori status were assessed in MZ and DZ twin pairs reared apart or together. A total of 258 twin pairs had information regarding H. pylori status and history of peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori status was assessed as the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations for peptic ulcer disease for MZ twins reared apart and together and DZ twins reared apart and together were 0.67, 0.65, 0.22, and 0.35, respectively, which indicates that genetic effects are important for liability to peptic ulcer. The correlation coefficient for MZ twins reared apart (0.67) provides the best single estimate of the relative importance of genetic effects (heritability) for variation in liability to peptic ulcer disease, and structural model fitting analyses confirmed this result (heritability, 62%). The cross-twin cross-trait correlations for MZ and DZ twins were examined to determine whether genetic effects for peptic ulcer were shared with or independent of genetic influences for H. pylori. The cross-correlations for MZ and DZ twins were almost identical (0.25 and 0.29, respectively), suggesting that familial environmental rather than genetic influences mediate the association between peptic ulcer disease and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic influences are of moderate importance for liability to peptic ulcer disease. Genetic influences for peptic ulcer are independent of genetic influences important for acquiring H. pylori infection.
PubMed ID
10632311 View in PubMed
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Association between depressed mood in the elderly and a 5-HTR2A gene variant.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45905
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003 Jul 1;120(1):79-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2003
Author
M. Jansson
M. Gatz
S. Berg
B. Johansson
B. Malmberg
G E McClearn
M. Schalling
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. martja@mbox.ki.se
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003 Jul 1;120(1):79-84
Date
Jul-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Comparative Study
Depressive Disorder - etiology - genetics
Diseases in Twins - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Odds Ratio
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Promoter Regions (Genetics)
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Factors
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate any possible association between depressed mood in the elderly and two candidate SNPs in the serotonin system: one in the 5-HTR2A gene promotor (-1438 G/A) and one in the 5-HT transporter gene (-925 C/A). DNA from a population-based Swedish twin sample (N = 1,592; mean age = 73) was genotyped using Pryosequencing trade mark. An association was found between the 5-HTR2A gene promotor polymorphism and depressed mood (OR: 1.5, CI: 1.1-2.1) for the A/A genotype in the total sample. When the sample was analyzed by gender, a significant association (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.4-4.4) was found for males and the A/A genotype, but not for females. The 5-HT transporter gene was not associated with depressed mood in this elderly population. These results suggest that there might be different genetic mechanisms for males and females contributing to the development of depressed mood in the elderly.
PubMed ID
12815744 View in PubMed
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Association between gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent overactive bladder among premenopausal female twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114123
Source
BJOG. 2013 Sep;120(10):1289-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
G. Tettamanti
A N Iliadou
N L Pedersen
R. Bellocco
D. Altman
Author Affiliation
Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. giorgio.tettamanti@ki.se
Source
BJOG. 2013 Sep;120(10):1289-95
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes, Gestational - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Premenopause
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Urinary Bladder, Overactive - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate the association between a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and overactive bladder (OAB) in women of premenopausal age.
Population-based study.
The Swedish Twin Register.
In 2005, a total of 14 094 female twins born between 1959 and 1985 in the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a comprehensive survey on common exposures and complex diseases. Structured questions provided information on GDM and OAB. The present study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis including all women in the cohort having given birth before 2005 (n = 7855).
A logistic regression model based on generalised estimating equations was used to derive odds ratios (ORs).
The association between a history of GDM and OAB was estimated using ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
The prevalence of OAB in women with a history of GDM was 19.1% compared with 10.7% in women without GDM. This corresponded to a two-fold increased odds of OAB in women with a history of gestational diabetes (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.48-3.05). After adjusting the analysis for age, body mass index, parity, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, having had GDM was associated with doubled odds of OAB (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.26-2.80).
A history of GDM was positively associated with OAB among women of premenopausal age. The association does not seem to be mediated by body mass index or type-I or type-II diabetes mellitus.
PubMed ID
23647812 View in PubMed
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Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125814
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Feb;37(2):296-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
A K Dahl
L B Hassing
E I Fransson
M. Gatz
C A Reynolds
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. anna.dahl@ki.se
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Feb;37(2):296-302
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aging
Analysis of Variance
Body mass index
Cognition
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Overweight - complications - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Thinness - complications - epidemiology
Abstract
High midlife body mass index (BMI) has been linked to a greater risk of dementia in late life, but few have studied the effect of BMI across midlife on cognitive abilities and cognitive change in a dementia-free sample.
We investigated the association between BMI, measured twice across midlife (mean age 40 and 61 years, respectively), and cognitive change in four domains across two decades in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.
Latent growth curve models fitted to data from 657 non-demented participants showed that persons who were overweight/obese in early midlife had significantly lower cognitive performance across domains in late life and significantly steeper decline in perceptual speed, adjusting for cardio-metabolic factors. Both underweight and overweight/obesity in late midlife were associated with lower cognitive abilities in late life. However, the association between underweight and low cognitive abilities did not remain significant when weight decline between early and late midlife was controlled for.
There is a negative effect on cognitive abilities later in life related to being overweight/obese across midlife. Moreover, weight decline across midlife rather than low weight in late midlife per se was associated with low cognitive abilities. Weight patterns across midlife may be prodromal markers of late life cognitive health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22450854 View in PubMed
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Both the environment and genes are important for concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197411
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Aug;108(8):719-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
L. Björkman
M. Vahter
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Aug;108(8):719-22
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Markers - blood
Cadmium - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Lead - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Sweden - epidemiology
Twin Studies as Topic
Abstract
Concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood (BCd and BPb, respectively) are traditionally used as biomarkers of environmental exposure. We estimated the influence of genetic factors on these markers in a cohort of 61 monozygotic and 103 dizygotic twin pairs (mean age = 68 years, range = 49-86). BCd and BPb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Variations in both BCd and BPb were influenced by not only environmental but also genetic factors. Interestingly, the genetic influence was considerably greater for nonsmoking women (h(2) = 65% for BCd and 58% for BPb) than for nonsmoking men (13 and 0%, respectively). The shared familial environmental (c(2)) influence for BPb was 37% for men but only 3% for women. The association between BCd and BPb could be attributed entirely to environmental factors of mutual importance for levels of the two metals. Thus, blood metal concentrations in women reflect not only exposure, as previously believed, but to a considerable extent hereditary factors possibly related to uptake and storage. Further steps should focus on identification of these genetic factors and evaluation of whether women are more susceptible to exposure to toxic metals than men.
Notes
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PubMed ID
10964791 View in PubMed
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Cancer in twins: genetic and nongenetic familial risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22188
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Feb 19;89(4):287-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-19-1997
Author
A. Ahlbom
P. Lichtenstein
H. Malmström
M. Feychting
K. Hemminki
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Department of Biosciences, Sweden.
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Feb 19;89(4):287-93
Date
Feb-19-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - etiology - genetics
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology - genetics
Registries
Risk
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Familial clustering has been observed for cancers that occur at specific sites. Most findings, which leave little doubt about the involvement of a heritable (i.e., genetic) component in the development of some cancers, are based on data from "cancer-prone" families or interviews with subjects who have cancer. The study of twins should be of value in cancer epidemiology because twins either are genetically identical or share half of their segregating genes. PURPOSE: We linked the Swedish Twin Registry to the Swedish Cancer Registry, thereby identifying cases of cancer diagnosed from 1959 through 1992 in twins born in the period from 1886 through 1958, to assess the importance of both genetic and nongenetic (i.e., environmental) familial factors in determining cancer risk. METHODS: Same-sex twin pairs with both individuals alive and living in Sweden in 1959-1961 or 1970-1972 were identified in the old cohort (born from 1886 through 1925) or the young cohort (born from 1926 through 1958), respectively, of the Swedish Twin Registry; pairs for whom zygosity (i.e., the number of eggs that gave rise to the twins) could be determined were considered further. The association of cancer with combined genetic and nongenetic familial factors was tested by comparing all twin pairs (regardless of zygosity) in which at least one member of the pair had been diagnosed with cancer at one of several specific sites with pairs in which neither twin had that cancer. Heritable effects alone were tested by comparing monozygotic (one egg) and dizygotic (two eggs) twin pairs. Statistical methods used in quantitative genetics and standard methods for epidemiologic research were used in parallel to analyze the data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the 10503 twin pairs from the old cohort, 361.7 cases of malignant cancer were identified; 918 malignant cancers were identified in the 12883 twin pairs from the young cohort. When cancer sites with a total number of at least 200 cases and at least one twin pair concordant (i.e., both twins affected) for the site were evaluated, namely, cancers of the stomach, colon and rectum, lung, female breast, and prostate, as well as total cancer, profound genetic and/or nongenetic familial effects were identified in twins from the old cohort. Similar findings were obtained for twins in the young cohort for cancers of the prostate and female breast, as well as for total cancer. Genetic and nongenetic familial effects were also identified in twins from both cohorts for in situ cancer of the cervix. The increase in risk of colon and rectum, breast, cervical, and especially prostate cancer, but not stomach or lung cancer, tended to be greater if a monozygotic rather than a dizygotic twin were affected. IMPLICATIONS: The identification of familial effects for total cancer in this study is consistent with the idea that individuals may possess a genetic susceptibility to cancer in general.
Notes
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Feb 19;89(4):270-29048826
PubMed ID
9048832 View in PubMed
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Can personality explain genetic influences on life events?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64398
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997 Jan;72(1):196-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
K J Saudino
N L Pedersen
P. Lichtenstein
G E McClearn
R. Plomin
Author Affiliation
Center for Developmental and Health Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997 Jan;72(1):196-206
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environment
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Multivariate Analysis
Personality - genetics
Phenotype
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Factors
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Previous research in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) has found genetic influences on life events (R. Plomin, P. Lichtenstein, N.L. Pedersen, G.E. McClearn, & J.R. Nesselroade, 1990). The present study extends this finding by examining sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to life events and by examining personality as a mediator of genetic influences on life events in SATSA. Analyses were based on 320 twin pairs, including identical and fraternal twins reared together and apart (mean age = 58.6 years). Controllable, desirable, and undesirable life events were revealed significant genetic variance for women. There was no significant genetic variance for either sex for uncontrollable events. Multivariate analyses of personality (as indexed by Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience) and life events suggest that all of the genetic variance on controllable, desirable, and undesirable life events for women is common to personality. Thus, in this sample of older adult women, genetic influences on life events appear to be entirely mediated by personality.
PubMed ID
9008381 View in PubMed
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Childhood adoption: long-term effects in adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33597
Source
Psychiatry. 1998;61(3):191-205
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
M A Smyer
M. Gatz
N L Simi
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167-3807, USA. smyer@bc.edu
Source
Psychiatry. 1998;61(3):191-205
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adoption - psychology
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health status
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Matched-Pair Analysis
Middle Aged
Personal Satisfaction
Personality
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Abstract
Clinicians and researchers have characterized early life experiences as permanent and stable influences on the personality and subsequent life experiences of an individual. Recent conceptualizations have suggested that personal and environmental factors influencing development are not deterministic. Multiple pathways into adulthood are possible. Adoption is one potential early life stressor that may illustrate the usefulness of such conceptualizations for assessing long-term effects in adulthood. Previous studies of adoption have characterized the effects of adoption into adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the long-term impact of adoption. The participants were taken from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. From the original sample, we identified a subsample of 60 pairs of twins who were separated and reared apart, with one member being raised by a biological parent or parents and the other by an adoptive parent or parents with no biological relationship. A series of univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to assess the elements associated with being reared in either an adoptive home or the home of biological parent(s). The results suggest few significant effects of adoption on the adult adjustment of adoptees. In particular, the results reflect the important mediating role of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting that the stress of adoption itself is mediated by the type of rearing environment provided by the adoption process.
PubMed ID
9823029 View in PubMed
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90 records – page 1 of 9.