Epidemiological danger of tuberculosis foci with patients suffering from active and inactive tuberculosis was studied. For this purpose 151 children being in contact with tuberculous patients were examined. The control group included 300 children from healthy surroundings. The study showed that the immunity levels in the children from the tuberculosis foci were lower and tuberculin sensitivity by the Mantoux test, the infection rate and tuberculosis incidence in them were higher than those included 300 children from healthy surroundings. Since the infection rate in the children from the foci with patients suffering from inactive tuberculosis was high it was considered necessary to subject them to sanation including chemoprophylaxis in accordance with the medical indications.
Season-, sex- and nationality-specific changes in immunity and tuberculin sensitivity were investigated in children and adolescents living in a rural Bashkortostan region. As shown by the trial including 1880 subjects, primary infection occurred more frequently in spring and least frequently in summer both in Russian and Bashkir examinees, but the Bashkirs exhibited an earlier turn of the tuberculin tests, a more active response to Mantoux test. The evidence obtained suggests the existence of higher tuberculosis risk for Bashkirs.
A total of 455 women, both pregnant and nonpregnant ones, permanently living in zones I and II of ionizing irradiation, were examined in 13 months after the Chernobyl Power Plant accident. Monocyte phagocytic activity and humoral immunity parameters were under study. An imbalance of the immunity parameters were characteristic of all the examinees living in zone I: they presented with disordered phagocytic activity of the monocytes, elevated levels of circulating R proteins, reduced production of natural and specific antibodies, changed concentrations of the principal immunoglobulin classes. The immune status of women living in the zone II was found lowered at the expense of reduced phagocytic activity of the monocytes, production of natural antibodies and immunoglobulins, shifted to either sides R protein levels, this necessitating immunocorrective therapy before pregnancy onset.