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A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288173
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ola Ståhlberg
Sofia Boman
Christina Robertsson
Nóra Kerekes
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Recurrence
Residential Treatment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54-.84, p=.02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.
PubMed ID
27745884 View in PubMed
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ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, temperament, and character: phenotypical associations and etiology in a Swedish childhood twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112856
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Nóra Kerekes
Sven Brändström
Sebastian Lundström
Maria Råstam
Thomas Nilsson
Henrik Anckarsäter
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&D Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: nora.kerekes@neuro.gu.se.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Character
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Personality - physiology
Phenotype
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperament - physiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To explore the links between neurodevelopmental disorders - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - and personality in a population-based, genetically sensitive study of children.
A population-based sample of 1886 twins aged 9 and 12, enriched for childhood mental health problems, was recruited from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parents were interviewed over the telephone using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory, and in a second step they rated their children according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI).
ADHD was strongly correlated with novelty seeking, while ASD was correlated positively with harm avoidance and negatively with reward dependence. The strongest associations between personality traits and neurodevelopmental disorders were negative correlations between the character dimensions of self-directedness and cooperativeness and ADHD and ASD alike. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between ADHD, ASD, and personality dimensions in monozygotic twins were more than double those in dizygotic twins, indicating a strong genetic effect behind the phenotypic covariation between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are linked specifically to particular temperament profiles and generally to hampered development of the self-governing strategies referred to as "character." Poor self-agency and cooperation may be core functional outcomes in the separation of children with handicapping conditions from those with traits only reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders. The associations between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality are at least partly due to genetic effects influencing both conditions. As a consequence, personality must be broadly considered in neuropsychiatry, just as neuropsychiatric disorders and their genetic, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive susceptibilities have to be in personality research and clinical treatment.
PubMed ID
23790516 View in PubMed
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Autism spectrum disorders and coexisting disorders in a nationwide Swedish twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270293
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;56(6):702-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Sebastian Lundström
Abraham Reichenberg
Jonas Melke
Maria Råstam
Nóra Kerekes
Paul Lichtenstein
Christopher Gillberg
Henrik Anckarsäter
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;56(6):702-10
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autism Spectrum Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Comorbidity
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Evidence from twin and molecular genetic studies is accumulating that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) shares substantial etiological factors with other disorders. This is mirrored in clinical practice where ASD without coexisting disorders is rare. The present study aims to examine the range of coexisting disorders in ASD in a genetically informative cohort.
Parents of all Swedish 9-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2001 (n = 19,130) underwent a telephone interview designed to screen for child psychiatric disorders, including ASD. To ensure full coverage of child psychiatric disorders, data were also retrieved from population-based health registers. We investigated the coexistence of eight psychiatric disorders known to coexist with ASDs in probands and their co-twins.
Half of the individuals with ASDs (50.3%) had four or more coexisting disorders and only 4% did not have any concomitant disorder. The 'healthy co-twin' in ASD discordant monozygotic twin pairs was very often (79% of boys and 50% of girls) affected by at least one non-ASD disorder. The corresponding figures for ASD discordant dizygotic twin pairs were significantly lower (46% of males and 30% of females).
Detailed phenotypic descriptions including symptoms of problems associated with a wide range of child psychiatric disorders may aid in unraveling the genetic architecture of ASD and should guide the development of intervention strategies addressing each problem type specifically.
PubMed ID
25279993 View in PubMed
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The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125202
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2011 Dec;14(6):495-508
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Henrik Anckarsäter
Sebastian Lundström
Linnea Kollberg
Nora Kerekes
Camilla Palm
Eva Carlström
Niklas Långström
Patrik K E Magnusson
Linda Halldner
Sven Bölte
Christopher Gillberg
Clara Gumpert
Maria Råstam
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Forensic Psychiatry, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. henrik.anckarsater@neuro.gu.se
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2011 Dec;14(6):495-508
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Autistic Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Neuropsychiatry
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Parents
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems.
PubMed ID
22506305 View in PubMed
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Eating problems and overlap with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders in a nationwide twin study of 9- and 12-year-old children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113757
Source
ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:315429
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Maria Råstam
Jakob Täljemark
Armin Tajnia
Sebastian Lundström
Peik Gustafsson
Paul Lichtenstein
Christopher Gillberg
Henrik Anckarsäter
Nóra Kerekes
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Sofiavägen 2D, Lund, Sweden. maria.rastam@med.lu.se
Source
ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:315429
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Eating Disorders - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
AIM. To establish the prevalence of restrictive eating problems, the overlap and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to estimate the heritability of eating problems in a general population sample of twins aged 9 and 12. METHODS. Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twin pairs born between 1993 and 1998 (n = 12,366) were interviewed regarding symptoms of ADHD, ASD, and eating problems (EAT-P). Intraclass correlations and structural equation modelling were used for evaluating the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were used to indicate a possible overlap between conditions. RESULTS. The prevalence of eating problems was 0.6% in the study population and was significantly higher in children with ADHD and/or ASD. Among children with eating problems, 40% were screened positive for ADHD and/or ASD. Social interaction problems were strongly associated with EAT-P in girls, and impulsivity and activity problems with EAT-P in boys. The cross-twin, cross-trait correlations suggested low correlations between EAT-P and ADHD or EAT-P and ASD. Genetic effects accounted for 44% of the variation in liability for eating problems. CONCLUSIONS. In the group with eating problems, there was a clear overrepresentation of individuals with ADHD and/or ASD symptoms.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23690743 View in PubMed
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Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141855
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2010 Sep-Oct;33(4):220-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Christer Svennerlind
Thomas Nilsson
Nóra Kerekes
Peter Andiné
Margareta Lagerkvist
Anders Forsman
Henrik Anckarsäter
Helge Malmgren
Author Affiliation
Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2010 Sep-Oct;33(4):220-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Criminal Law - history
Criminals - psychology
Forensic Psychiatry
History, 20th Century
Humans
Mental Competency - legislation & jurisprudence
Mental Disorders - therapy
Prisoners - psychology
Punishment
Risk assessment
Sweden
Abstract
Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.
PubMed ID
20667594 View in PubMed
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Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298587
Source
J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Jan; 49(1):83-95
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Setareh Alabaf
Christopher Gillberg
Sebastian Lundström
Paul Lichtenstein
Nóra Kerekes
Maria Råstam
Henrik Anckarsäter
Author Affiliation
Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. setareh.alabaf@gu.se.
Source
J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Jan; 49(1):83-95
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Keywords
Child
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Neurodevelopmental Disorders - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children's physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enuresis, encopresis) in a nationwide population of 9- and 12-year-old twins subdivided into those with and without indications of NDDs. Parents of 28,058 twins participated in a well-validated telephone interview regarding their children's mental health and answered questions about their physical problems. The results indicate a high rate of physical problems in children with NDDs, particularly in those with indications of the presence of combinations of several NDDs.
Notes
ErratumIn: J Autism Dev Disord. 2018 Oct 19;: PMID 30341628
PubMed ID
30043349 View in PubMed
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Predictive properties of the A-TAC inventory when screening for childhood-onset neurodevelopmental problems in a population-based sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107049
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:233
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Tomas Larson
Sebastian Lundström
Thomas Nilsson
Eva Norén Selinus
Maria Råstam
Paul Lichtenstein
Clara Hellner Gumpert
Henrik Anckarsäter
Nóra Kerekes
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö (TL; HA), Lund (MR), Sweden. tomas.larson@med.lu.se.
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:233
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - diagnosis - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Learning Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychometrics
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden - epidemiology
Tic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Twins
Abstract
Identifying children with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs, defined here as autism spectrum disorders [ASDs], attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [AD/HD], tic disorders [TDs], learning disorders [LDs] and development coordination disorder), using easily administered screening instruments, is a prerequisite for epidemiological research. Such instruments are also clinically useful to prioritize children for comprehensive assessments, to screen risk groups, and to follow controls.Autism-Tics, ADHD, and other Co-morbidities inventory (A-TAC) was developed to meet these requirements; here the A-TAC's prospective and psychometric properties are examined, when used in a population-based, epidemiological setting.
Since 2004, parents of all Swedish twins have been asked to take part in an ongoing, nation-wide twin study (The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden). The study includes the A-TAC, carried out as a telephone interview with parents of twins aged 9 or 12. In the present study, screen-positive twins from three birth year cohorts (1993-1995) were invited to a comprehensive clinical follow-up (blinded for previous screening results) together with their co-twins and randomly selected, healthy controls at age 15 (Total N = 452).
Sensitivity and specificity of A-TAC scores for predicting later clinical diagnoses were good to excellent overall, with values of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves ranging from 0.77 (AD/HD) to 0.91 (ASDs). Among children who were screen-positive for an ASD, 48% received a clinical diagnosis of ASDs. For AD/HD, the corresponding figure was also 48%, for LDs 16%, and for TDs 60%. Between 4% and 35% of screen-positive children did not receive any diagnosis at the clinical follow-up three years later. Among screen-negative controls, prevalence of ASDs, AD/HD, LDs, and TDs was 0%, 7%, 4%, and 2%, respectively.
The A-TAC appeared to be a valid instrument to assess NDPs in this population-based, longitudinal study. It has good-to-excellent psychometric properties, with an excellent ability to distinguish NDPs (mainly ASDs) from non-NDPs at least three years after the screening evaluations, although specific diagnoses did not correspond closely to actual clinical diagnoses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24066834 View in PubMed
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The Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA): Psychometric characteristics of a new tool measuring change in aggressive behaviors in correctional settings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296634
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2018 05; 263:130-138
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2018
Author
Nóra Kerekes
Susanne Apelqvist
Cecilia Fielding
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Electronic address: nora.kerekes@hv.se.
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2018 05; 263:130-138
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Female
Hostility
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prisoners - psychology
Prisons - trends
Psychometrics
Self Report - standards
Surveys and Questionnaires - standards
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
There is a need for instruments that can be used in correctional settings to measure changes in aggressive behaviors over a limited time period. This study aimed to validate an instrument (the Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression, PAMA) that assesses specifically the past month's aggressive behaviors and is adapted for use in correctional facilities. The psychometric properties of the self-rated and interview versions of the PAMA were explored and compared to those of two well-established measures of aggression: The Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS); and the self-rate Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV). The study group comprised 93 male and 59 female inmates, who were followed for two months. During the study, the prevalence of aggressive acts was observed and reported by SOAS. On two occasions, at monthly intervals, subjects reported their own aggressive behaviors using AQ-RSV and the self-report version of the PAMA; also, a psychologist conducted interviews according to PAMA. This study's main finding was that the self-rated version of PAMA is a valid measure of different types and dimensions of aggression (physical and verbal aggression, hostility) and has acceptable psychometric properties. Therefore, PAMA could potentially be of value for use in correctional services evaluating aggression managing treatment interventions.
PubMed ID
29550718 View in PubMed
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Reliability of Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory in a test-retest design.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104411
Source
Psychol Rep. 2014 Feb;114(1):93-103
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Tomas Larson
Nóra Kerekes
Eva Norén Selinus
Paul Lichtenstein
Clara Hellner Gumpert
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Sebastian Lundström
Source
Psychol Rep. 2014 Feb;114(1):93-103
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychometrics - instrumentation
Reproducibility of Results
Sweden - epidemiology
Tic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Twins - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory is used in epidemiological research to assess neurodevelopmental problems and coexisting conditions. Although the A-TAC has been applied in various populations, data on retest reliability are limited. The objective of the present study was to present additional reliability data. The A-TAC was administered by lay assessors and was completed on two occasions by parents of 400 individual twins, with an average interval of 70 days between test sessions. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were analysed with intraclass correlations and Cohen's kappa. A-TAC showed excellent test-retest intraclass correlations for both autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (each at .84). Most modules in the A-TAC had intra- and inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients of > or = .60. Cohen's kappa indi- cated acceptable reliability. The current study provides statistical evidence that the A-TAC yields good test-retest reliability in a population-based cohort of children.
PubMed ID
24765712 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.