We aimed to assess cancer risk in congenital heart defect patients, with and without Down's syndrome, compared with the general population.
We identified all patients born and diagnosed with congenital heart defects from 1977 to 2008 using the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals. We compared cancer incidence in the congenital heart defect cohort with that expected in the general population (~5.5 million) using the Danish Cancer Registry, and computed age- and gender-standardised incidence ratios.
We identified 15,905 congenital heart defect patients, contributing a total of 151,172 person-years at risk; the maximum length of follow-up was 31 years (median 8 years). In all, 53 patients were diagnosed with cancer, including 30 female and 23 male patients (standardised incidence ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.13). Risks were increased for leukaemia, brain tumours, and basal cell carcinoma. After excluding 801 patients with Down's syndrome, the standardised incidence ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.64). In the subgroup of 5660 non-Down's syndrome patients undergoing cardiac surgery or catheter-based interventions, the standardised incidence ratio was 1.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-2.29).
The overall risk of cancer among congenital heart defect patients without Down's syndrome was not statistically significantly elevated. Cancer risk in the congenital heart defect cohort as a whole, including patients with Down's syndrome, was increased compared with the general population, although the absolute risk was low. Studies with longer follow-up and more information on radiation doses are needed to further examine a potential cancer risk associated with diagnostic radiation exposure.
We examined the risk of psychiatric in-patient admissions and out-patient visits among Danish patients with congenital heart defects (CHD).
Using the Danish National Registry of Patients, we identified CHD patients born January 1, 1977, to January 1, 2002. For each patient, we randomly selected 10 population-comparison cohort members from the Danish Civil Registration System, matched by sex and birth year. We computed cumulative risk and hazard ratios (HRs) of time to first psychiatric in-patient admission or out-patient visit identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry and adjusted for parents' educational level and parents' psychiatric morbidity. We identified 6927 CHD patients. At 15 years of age, the cumulative risk of psychiatric admissions or out-patient visits was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2%-6.6%) among CHD patients. The HRs for CHD patients and comparison cohort members aged 0 to 14 years were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5-2.1) for males and 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.1) for females. For patients aged 15 to 30 years, the HRs were 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for males and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.8-1.3) for females. Congenital heart defect patients, both with and without invasive therapeutic interventions or extracardiac defects or syndromes, had a higher risk of psychiatric in-patient admissions or out-patient visits than comparison cohort members. After restriction of the comparison cohort to patients with diabetes mellitus or asthma (n=2554), the HR was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.07-1.85) for patients aged 0 to 14 years and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.52-0.94) for patients aged 15 to 30 years.
Congenital heart disease patients with or without invasive therapeutic interventions are at increased risk of developmental and other psychiatric disorders, which seem to develop earlier than in patients with diabetes mellitus or asthma.
Congenital heart defects (CHD) constitute the largest group of congenital defects with a prevalence at birth of 5-11 per 1000 live births, and the population of adults with CHD is increasing. However, few population-based long-term outcome data exist.
The Danish Register of Congenital Heart Disease holds data on patients diagnosed with CHD since 1963 and patients below 25 years of age with other types of heart disease.
Overall and defect specific validation is ongoing.
Together with other Danish registers, the Danish Register of Congenital Heart Disease provides extensive research possibilities.
Congenital heart defect patients may experience neurodevelopmental impairment. We investigated their educational attainments from basic schooling to higher education.
Using administrative databases, we identified all Danish patients with a cardiac defect diagnosis born from 1 January, 1977 to 1 January, 1991 and alive at age 13 years. As a comparison cohort, we randomly sampled 10 persons per patient. We obtained information on educational attainment from Denmark's Database for Labour Market Research. The study population was followed until achievement of educational levels, death, emigration, or 1 January, 2006. We estimated the hazard ratio of attaining given educational levels, conditional on completing preceding levels, using discrete-time Cox regression and adjusting for socio-economic factors. Analyses were repeated for a sub-cohort of patients and controls born at term and without extracardiac defects or chromosomal anomalies.
We identified 2986 patients. Their probability of completing compulsory basic schooling was approximately 10% lower than that of control individuals (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.79, ranged from 0.75 to 0.82 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.82). Their subsequent probability of completing secondary school was lower than that of the controls, both for all patients (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.80) and for the sub-cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.86). The probability of attaining a higher degree, conditional on completion of youth education, was affected both for all patients (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.01) and for the sub-cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.79-1.07).
The probability of educational attainment was reduced among long-term congenital heart defect survivors.
Pertussis is associated with encephalopathy and seizures in infants. However, the risk of childhood epilepsy following pertussis is unknown.
To examine whether pertussis is associated with the long-term risk of epilepsy.
We used individually linked data from population-based medical registries covering all Danish hospitals to identify a cohort of all patients with pertussis born between 1978 and 2011, followed up through 2011. We used the Civil Registration System to identify 10 individuals from the general population for each patient with pertussis, matched on sex and year of birth.
Inpatient or hospital-based outpatient diagnosis of pertussis.
Cumulative incidence and hazard ratio of time to hospital-based epilepsy diagnosis (pertussis cohort vs general population cohort), adjusted for birth year, sex, maternal history of epilepsy, presence of congenital malformations, and gestational age. Unique personal identifiers permitted unambiguous data linkage and complete follow-up for death, emigration, and hospital contacts.
We identified 4700 patients with pertussis (48% male), of whom 90 developed epilepsy during the follow-up. The cumulative incidence of epilepsy at age 10 years was 1.7% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.1%) for patients with pertussis and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.8%-1.0%) for the matched comparison cohort. The corresponding adjusted overall hazard ratio was 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.1).
In Denmark, risk of epilepsy was increased in children with hospital-diagnosed pertussis infections compared with the general population; however, the absolute risk was low.
Health resource utilization (HRU) and outcomes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are not well described. Therefore, a population-based cohort study was conducted to characterize patients hospitalized with AECOPD with regard to HRU, mortality, recurrence, and predictors of readmission with AECOPD.
Using Danish healthcare databases, this study identified COPD patients with at least one AECOPD hospitalization between 2005-2009 in Northern Denmark. Hospitalized AECOPD patients' HRU, in-hospital mortality, 30-day, 60-day, 90-day, and 180-day post-discharge mortality and recurrence risk, and predictors of readmission with AECOPD in the year following study inclusion were characterized.
This study observed 6612 AECOPD hospitalizations among 3176 prevalent COPD patients. Among all AECOPD hospitalizations, median length of stay was 6 days (interquartile range [IQR] 3-9 days); 5 days (IQR 3-9) among those without ICU stay and 11 days (IQR 7-20) among the 8.6% admitted to the ICU. Mechanical ventilation was provided to 193 (2.9%) and non-invasive ventilation to 479 (7.2%) admitted patients. In-hospital mortality was 5.6%. Post-discharge mortality was 4.2%, 7.8%, 10.5%, and 17.4% at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days, respectively. Mortality and readmission risk increased with each AECOPD hospitalization experienced in the first year of follow-up. Readmission at least twice in the first year of follow-up was observed among 286 (9.0%) COPD patients and was related to increasing age, male gender, obesity, asthma, osteoporosis, depression, myocardial infarction, diabetes I and II, any malignancy, and hospitalization with AECOPD or COPD in the prior year.
The study included only hospitalized AECOPD patients among prevalent COPD patients. Furthermore, information was lacking on clinical variables.
These findings indicate that AECOPD hospitalizations are associated with substantial mortality and risk of recurrence.
To examine the association between exacerbation frequency and mortality following an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).
Cohort study using medical databases.
On 1 January 2005, we identified all patients with prevalent hospital-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had at least one AECOPD during 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009. We followed patients from the first AECOPD during this period until death, emigration or 31 December 2009, whichever came first. We flagged all AECOPD events during follow-up and characterised each by the exacerbation frequency (0, 1, 2 or 3+) in the prior 12-month period.
Using Cox regression, we computed 0-30-day and 31-365-day age-adjusted, sex-adjusted, and comorbidity-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% CIs entering exacerbation frequency as a time-varying exposure.
We identified 16,647 eligible patients with prevalent COPD, of whom 6664 (40%) developed an AECOPD and were thus included in the study cohort. The 0-30-day MRRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.18), 0.90 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.15) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.32) among patients with AECOPD with 1, 2 and 3+ AECOPDs versus no AECOPD within the past 12 months, respectively. The corresponding MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.66), 1.89 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.25) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.05) for days 31-365.
Among patients with AECOPD, one or more exacerbations in the previous year were not associated with 30-day mortality but were associated with an increased 31-365-day mortality.
Cites: Lung. 2011 Feb;189(1):27-3521170722
Cites: Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2010;5:435-4421191438