To examine antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes and determine to what degree the prescribing was in accordance with the national guidelines for antibiotic prescribing.
Retrospective examination of patients' records who were prescribed antibiotics in the period 1 March 2007 to 28 February 2008.
Patients residing in the nursing homes of Arendal, Norway.
Choice of antibiotic in respect of the recommendations in the national guidelines for antibiotic prescribing.
A total of 714 antibiotic courses were prescribed to 327 patients yielding a prevalence of 6.6%. Compliant prescribing was 77% for urinary tract infections (UTI), 79% for respiratory tract infections (RTI), and 76% for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Ciprofloxacin was responsible for 63% of non-compliant prescribing. On the respite wards there was a higher rate of total prescribing, non-compliant prescribing, and prescribing by physicians employed at the local hospital.
Guidelines for antibiotic use must be implemented actively and efforts to improve antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes must be aimed at both nursing home and hospital physicians.
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Cites: Scand J Prim Health Care. 2009;27(4):208-1519929185
Cites: Br J Gen Pract. 1999 Jun;49(443):436-4010562741
Cites: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Mar 10;121(7):827-3011301708
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Antibiotic resistance is a problem in nursing homes. Presumed urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infection. This study examines urine culture results from elderly patients to see if specific guidelines based on gender or whether the patient resides in a nursing home (NH) are warranted.
This is a cross sectional observation study comparing urine cultures from NH patients with urine cultures from patients in the same age group living in the community.
There were 232 positive urine cultures in the NH group and 3554 in the community group. Escherichia coli was isolated in 145 urines in the NH group (64%) and 2275 (64%) in the community group. There were no clinically significant differences in resistance. Combined, there were 3016 positive urine cultures from females and 770 from males. Escherichia coli was significantly more common in females 2120 (70%) than in males 303 (39%) (p?
Cites: Intern Med J. 2012 Jul;42(7):e157-6421241444
A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment is given without substitution. This investigation assesses the behaviour of the children between the ages 6 and 13 years of women who attended the clinic. It also explores the correlation between the behaviour and a neuropsychological screening performed one and a half year earlier. The study was set up to investigate the influence of prenatal substance exposure.
Thirty-eight SCWC children and 63 children in a comparison group were scored by Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). Twenty-one (55%) SCWC mothers were classed as short-term users (ceased substance abuse before the end of first trimester), and 17 (45%) were classed as long-term users (continued a moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy). Thirteen (77%) of the children of the long-term users were living in foster homes at the time of the investigation.
SCWC children were scored within normal ranges for most items, but their scores were significantly worse than those of the comparison group. Children of short-term users were given lower scores than comparisons on more issues in CBCL than were children of long-term users. The SCWC children were breastfed for a shorter time (p = 0.023) and had moved house more often (p
Can antibiotic prescriptions in respiratory tract infections be improved? A cluster-randomized educational intervention in general practice--the Prescription Peer Academic Detailing (Rx-PAD) Study [NCT00272155].
More than half of all antibiotic prescriptions in general practice are issued for respiratory tract infections (RTIs), despite convincing evidence that many of these infections are caused by viruses. Frequent misuse of antimicrobial agents is of great global health concern, as we face an emerging worldwide threat of bacterial antibiotic resistance. There is an increasing need to identify determinants and patterns of antibiotic prescribing, in order to identify where clinical practice can be improved.
Approximately 80 peer continuing medical education (CME) groups in southern Norway will be recruited to a cluster randomized trial. Participating groups will be randomized either to an intervention- or a control group. A multifaceted intervention has been tailored, where key components are educational outreach visits to the CME-groups, work-shops, audit and feedback. Prescription Peer Academic Detailers (Rx-PADs), who are trained GPs, will conduct the educational outreach visits. During these visits, evidence-based recommendations of antibiotic prescriptions for RTIs will be presented and software will be handed out for installation in participants PCs, enabling collection of prescription data. These data will subsequently be linked to corresponding data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). Individual feedback reports will be sent all participating GPs during and one year after the intervention. Main outcomes are baseline proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for RTIs and change in prescription patterns compared to baseline one year after the initiation of the tailored pedagogic intervention.
Improvement of prescription patterns in medical practice is a challenging task. A thorough evaluation of guidelines for antibiotic treatment in RTIs may impose important benefits, whereas inappropriate prescribing entails substantial costs, as well as undesirable consequences like development of antibiotic resistance. Our hypothesis is that an educational intervention program will be effective in improving prescription patterns by reducing the total number of antibiotic prescriptions, as well as reducing the amount of broad-spectrum antibiotics, with special emphasis on macrolides.
Cites: Scand J Prim Health Care. 1999 Sep;17(3):185-9010555250
Cites: Scand J Prim Health Care. 1998 Jun;16(2):121-79689692
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic diseases among four-to-five-year-old children in a Norwegian county in order to identify significant prognostic factors and to investigate the use of social benefits. METHODS: In the context of ordinary medical examinations in a Norwegian county, a questionnaire was given to 2430 parents, of whom 1913 (79%) responded. Children with chronic disease and with frequent episodes of disease were selected for further examination. Of the 391 children selected, 263 (69%) attended. The parents answered questions about diagnosis, prognosis, marital status, parents' health, use of social benefits, and the development of the disease. RESULTS: Almost half of the 263 children who met for further examination had airway diseases, nearly all of them asthma. Of the remaining, 17% had congenital malformations, 13% had neurological development disorders, 10% had skin and joint diseases, and 12% various conditions including gastrointestinal diseases and hormonal disorders. One third had recovered, one third had diminishing problems, and one third was unchanged or worse. Parents of 15 children born in 1991 who received basic or supplementary benefits stated that the child had recovered or had a diminishing problem. However, 53 children who had a stable or deteriorating condition did not receive any benefits. In 22 of these, the parents stated that their child's general functioning was significantly affected. It is possible that they would have met criteria for supplementary and/or basic benefits. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that in 1996, 13% of four-to-five-year-old children in this county had a chronic disease. This finding is in line with other studies. Overuse and, more frequently, underuse of social benefits for these children was disclosed.
BACKGROUND: The role of large colony streptococci groups C or G as pathogen agents in sore throat has been questioned. AIM: To analyse clinical features of patients with large colony streptococci groups C or G compared with patients with group A streptococci (GAS) and with negative cultures. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective study of patients with sore throat. SETTING: Two Norwegian general practices in Stokke and Kongsberg communities with 6500 patients.METHOD: Frequency of clinical features in the three patient categories including the four Centor criteria (fever, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and lack of cough), degree of pain on swallowing, pharyngeal rubor, C-reactive protein (CRP) values, patient age between 3 and 14 years, and duration of symptoms before seeing the doctor. A logistic regression analysis to find independent predictors was performed. RESULTS: Out of 306 patients with a sore throat, 244 were adults and 62 were children under 10 years old; 40% were men. One hundred and twenty-seven had GAS, 33 had streptococci groups C or G, and 146 had negative throat cultures. Forty-eight per cent of the GAS patients and 45% of the C or G patients met three or four of the Centor criteria. The logistic regression revealed that in patients with GAS considerable pain on swallowing, an age of 3-14 years and a duration of symptoms of
Corticosteroid or placebo injection combined with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching and eccentric exercise for acute lateral epicondylitis: a randomised, controlled trial.
Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow is a frequent condition with long-lasting symptoms. Corticosteroid injection is increasingly discouraged and there is little knowledge on the combined effect of corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for acute conditions. We wanted to investigate the efficacy of physiotherapy alone and combined with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis.
A randomized, controlled study with one-year follow-up was conducted in a general practice setting in Sarpsborg, Norway. We included 177 men and women aged 18 to 70 with clinically diagnosed lateral epicondylitis of recent onset (2 weeks to 3 months). They were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: physiotherapy with two corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy with two placebo injections or wait-and-see (control). Physiotherapy consisted of deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching, and eccentric exercises. We used double blind injection of corticosteroid and single blind assessments. The main outcome measure was treatment success defined as patients rating themselves completely recovered or much better on a six-point scale.
One hundred fifty-seven patients (89 %) completed the trial. Placebo injection with physiotherapy showed no significant difference compared to control or to corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy at any follow-up. Corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy had a 10.6 times larger odds for success at six weeks (odds ratio 10.60, p
Cites: BMJ. 2006 Nov 4;333(7575):93917012266
Cites: Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Feb;61(2):240-617166184
To examine general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing patterns for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) as compared with national guidelines. We also wanted to explore possible predictors of antibiotic prescription patterns.
Observational study based on prescription data from 440 Norwegian GPs in December 2004 through to November 2005. Outcome measures were the type and frequency of antibiotic prescriptions for various ARTI diagnoses, with patients' and GPs' characteristics as explanatory variables.
In the study period, the 440 GPs treated a total of 142?900 ARTI episodes. In 33.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 31.9%-35.1%] of these episodes an antibiotic was issued, of which penicillin V (pcV) accounted for 41.2% (95% CI: 37.4%-44.9%). GPs with a high number of total annual encounters had higher antibiotic prescription rates for ARTIs and used more non-pcV antibiotics compared with GPs with fewer annual patient encounters. GPs in the highest quintile with respect to the total annual encounter rate had 1.6 times the odds of prescribing antibiotics compared with GPs in the lowest quintile. Correspondingly, the odds of choosing a non-pcV antibiotic were 2.8 times higher in the top quintile of GPs compared with GPs in the bottom quintile with respect to antibiotic prescription rates.
ARTIs are frequently treated with antibiotics and often with broader spectrum agents than pcV, which is the recommended first-line antibiotic in the Norwegian guidelines. GPs with a high practice activity are, in general, more liberal with respect to the prescription of antibiotics for ARTIs, and the higher the antibiotic prescription rate, the larger the share of non-pcV agents.