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Climate warming leads to decline in frequencies of melanic individuals in subarctic leaf beetle populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300016
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 10; 673:237-244
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-10-2019
Author
Elena L Zvereva
Mark D Hunter
Vitali Zverev
Oksana Y Kruglova
Mikhail V Kozlov
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku 20014, Finland. Electronic address: elezve@utu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 10; 673:237-244
Date
Jul-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Coleoptera - physiology
Color
Environmental monitoring
Global warming
Melanins - analysis
Population Dynamics
Russia
Abstract
Intraspecific diversity buffers populations from deleterious impacts of environmental change. Nevertheless, the consequences of climate warming for phenotypic and genetic diversity within populations and species remain poorly understood. The goal of our study was to explore among-year variations in the phenotypic structure of populations and their relationships with climate variability and population dynamics. We analysed multiyear (1992-2018) data on colour morph frequencies within populations of the leaf beetle, Chrysomela lapponica, from multiple sites in the Kola Peninsula (northwestern Russia). We observed a strong decline in the proportion of dark (melanic) morphs among overwintered beetles during the study period; this decline was consistent across all study sites. Using model selection procedures, we explained declines in the dark morph of overwintered beetles by increases in minimum spring (May-June) daily temperatures. Other climatic characteristics, pollution load, and beetle population density were unrelated to variation in colour morph frequencies. Among newly emerged beetles (August), dark morph frequencies also decreased with an increase in average spring temperatures, but were unrelated to mean temperatures during the larval development period (July). These results suggest that the two-fold decline in dark morph frequencies during the past 26?years has been driven by the 2.5?°C increase in spring temperatures, most likely because dark males lose the mating advantages over light males that they obtain during cold springs. The continued loss of dark morphs and related decrease in within-population diversity may render leaf beetle populations more vulnerable to future environmental changes, in particular to those expressed in extreme weather fluctuations. Our study demonstrates that declines in within-population diversity are already underway in subarctic areas, and that these declines are likely driven by climate warming.
PubMed ID
30991315 View in PubMed
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Climate warming leads to decline in frequencies of melanic individuals in subarctic leaf beetle populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299412
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 10; 673:237-244
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-10-2019
Author
Elena L Zvereva
Mark D Hunter
Vitali Zverev
Oksana Y Kruglova
Mikhail V Kozlov
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku 20014, Finland. Electronic address: elezve@utu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 10; 673:237-244
Date
Jul-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Intraspecific diversity buffers populations from deleterious impacts of environmental change. Nevertheless, the consequences of climate warming for phenotypic and genetic diversity within populations and species remain poorly understood. The goal of our study was to explore among-year variations in the phenotypic structure of populations and their relationships with climate variability and population dynamics. We analysed multiyear (1992-2018) data on colour morph frequencies within populations of the leaf beetle, Chrysomela lapponica, from multiple sites in the Kola Peninsula (northwestern Russia). We observed a strong decline in the proportion of dark (melanic) morphs among overwintered beetles during the study period; this decline was consistent across all study sites. Using model selection procedures, we explained declines in the dark morph of overwintered beetles by increases in minimum spring (May-June) daily temperatures. Other climatic characteristics, pollution load, and beetle population density were unrelated to variation in colour morph frequencies. Among newly emerged beetles (August), dark morph frequencies also decreased with an increase in average spring temperatures, but were unrelated to mean temperatures during the larval development period (July). These results suggest that the two-fold decline in dark morph frequencies during the past 26?years has been driven by the 2.5?°C increase in spring temperatures, most likely because dark males lose the mating advantages over light males that they obtain during cold springs. The continued loss of dark morphs and related decrease in within-population diversity may render leaf beetle populations more vulnerable to future environmental changes, in particular to those expressed in extreme weather fluctuations. Our study demonstrates that declines in within-population diversity are already underway in subarctic areas, and that these declines are likely driven by climate warming.
PubMed ID
30991315 View in PubMed
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Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274107
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Dec 1;536:616-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2015
Author
Sirkku Manninen
Vitali Zverev
Igor Bergman
Mikhail V Kozlov
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Dec 1;536:616-24
Date
Dec-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon - analysis
Carbon Sequestration
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Europe
Forests
Industry - statistics & numerical data
Nitrogen - analysis
Russia
Taiga
Abstract
Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24?10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities.
PubMed ID
26254064 View in PubMed
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Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259387
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1723-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Mark D Hunter
Mikhail V Kozlov
Juhani Itämies
Erkki Pulliainen
Jaana Bäck
Ella-Maria Kyrö
Pekka Niemelä
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1723-37
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Climate change
Finland
Moths - physiology
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Species Specificity
Taiga
Abstract
Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32?years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations appear buffered at present from potential deleterious effects of climate change by other ecological forces.
PubMed ID
24421221 View in PubMed
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Factors affecting population dynamics of leaf beetles in a subarctic region: The interplay between climate warming and pollution decline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291075
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Oct 01; 566-567:1277-1288
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-01-2016
Author
Elena L Zvereva
Mark D Hunter
Vitali Zverev
Mikhail V Kozlov
Author Affiliation
Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku 20014, Finland. Electronic address: elezve@utu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Oct 01; 566-567:1277-1288
Date
Oct-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Coleoptera - physiology
Environmental pollution - analysis
Global warming
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Species Specificity
Abstract
Understanding the mechanisms by which abiotic drivers, such as climate and pollution, influence population dynamics of animals is important for our ability to predict the population trajectories of individual species under different global change scenarios. We monitored four leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on willows (Salix spp.) in 13 sites along a pollution gradient in subarctic forests of north-western Russia from 1993 to 2014. During a subset of years, we also measured the impacts of natural enemies and host plant quality on the performance of one of these species, Chrysomela lapponica. Spring and fall temperatures increased by 2.5-3°C during the 21-year observation period, while emissions of sulfur dioxide and heavy metals from the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk decreased fivefold. However, contrary to predictions of increasing herbivory with climate warming, and in spite of discovered increase in host plant quality with increase in temperatures, none of the beetle species became more abundant during the past 20years. No directional trends were observed in densities of either Phratora vitellinae or Plagiodera versicolora, whereas densities of both C. lapponica and Gonioctena pallida showed a simultaneous rapid 20-fold decline in the early 2000s, remaining at very low levels thereafter. Time series analysis and model selection indicated that these abrupt population declines were associated with decreases in aerial emissions from the smelter. Observed declines in the population densities of C. lapponica can be explained by increases in mortality from natural enemies due to the combined action of climate warming and declining pollution. This pattern suggests that at least in some tri-trophic systems, top-down factors override bottom-up effects and govern the impacts of environmental changes on insect herbivores.
PubMed ID
27266523 View in PubMed
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Factors affecting population dynamics of leaf beetles in a subarctic region: The interplay between climate warming and pollution decline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273446
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Jun 4;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-4-2016
Author
Elena L Zvereva
Mark D Hunter
Vitali Zverev
Mikhail V Kozlov
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Jun 4;
Date
Jun-4-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Understanding the mechanisms by which abiotic drivers, such as climate and pollution, influence population dynamics of animals is important for our ability to predict the population trajectories of individual species under different global change scenarios. We monitored four leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on willows (Salix spp.) in 13 sites along a pollution gradient in subarctic forests of north-western Russia from 1993 to 2014. During a subset of years, we also measured the impacts of natural enemies and host plant quality on the performance of one of these species, Chrysomela lapponica. Spring and fall temperatures increased by 2.5-3°C during the 21-year observation period, while emissions of sulfur dioxide and heavy metals from the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk decreased fivefold. However, contrary to predictions of increasing herbivory with climate warming, and in spite of discovered increase in host plant quality with increase in temperatures, none of the beetle species became more abundant during the past 20years. No directional trends were observed in densities of either Phratora vitellinae or Plagiodera versicolora, whereas densities of both C. lapponica and Gonioctena pallida showed a simultaneous rapid 20-fold decline in the early 2000s, remaining at very low levels thereafter. Time series analysis and model selection indicated that these abrupt population declines were associated with decreases in aerial emissions from the smelter. Observed declines in the population densities of C. lapponica can be explained by increases in mortality from natural enemies due to the combined action of climate warming and declining pollution. This pattern suggests that at least in some tri-trophic systems, top-down factors override bottom-up effects and govern the impacts of environmental changes on insect herbivores.
PubMed ID
27266523 View in PubMed
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Local Insect Damage Reduces Fluctuating Asymmetry in Next-year's Leaves of Downy Birch.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291827
Source
Insects. 2018 May 11; 9(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-11-2018
Author
Mikhail V Kozlov
Dmitry E Gavrikov
Vitali Zverev
Elena L Zvereva
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. mikoz@utu.fi.
Source
Insects. 2018 May 11; 9(2):
Date
May-11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Insect herbivory imposes stress on host plants. This stress may cause an increase in leaf fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is defined as the magnitude of the random deviations from a symmetrical leaf shape. We tested the hypothesis that differences in leaf FA among individual shoots of downy birch, Betula pubescens, are at least partly explained by local damage caused by insects in the previous year. Unexpectedly, we found that in the year following the damage imposed by miners, leafrollers and defoliators, damaged birch shoots produced leaves with lower FAs compared to shoots from the same tree that had not been damaged by insects. This effect was consistent among the different groups of insects investigated, but intra-species comparisons showed that statistical significance was reached only in shoots that had been damaged by the birch leaf roller, Deporaus betulae. The detected decrease in leaf FA in the year following the damage agrees with the increases in shoot performance and in antiherbivore defence. The present results indicate that within-plant variation in leaf FA may have its origin in previous-year damage by insects, and that FA may influence the current-year's distribution of herbivory.
PubMed ID
29751675 View in PubMed
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The relative strengths of rapid and delayed density dependence acting on a terrestrial herbivore change along a pollution gradient.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296164
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2018 Nov 24; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-24-2018
Author
Mark D Hunter
Mikhail V Kozlov
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 3010 Biological Sciences Building, 1105 North University Avenue, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI48109-1085, USA.
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2018 Nov 24; :
Date
Nov-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
1.Animal populations vary in response to a combination of density dependent and density independent forces, which interact to drive their population dynamics. Understanding how abiotic forces mediate the form and strength of density dependent processes remains a central goal of ecology, and is of increasing urgency in a rapidly changing world. 2.Here, we report for the first time that industrial pollution determines the relative strength of rapid and delayed density dependence operating on an animal population. We explored the impacts of pollution and climate on the population dynamics of an eruptive leafmining moth, Phyllonorycter strigulatella, around a coal fired power plant near Apatity, northwestern Russia. Populations were monitored at 14 sites over 26 years. 3.The relative strengths of rapid and delayed density dependence varied with distance from the power plant. Specifically, the strength of rapid density dependence increased while the strength of delayed density dependence decreased with increasing distance from the pollution source. Paralleling the increasing strength of rapid density dependence, we observed declines in the densities of P. strigulatella, increases in predation pressure from birds and ants, and declines in an unknown source of mortality (perhaps plant antibiosis) with increasing distance from the power plant. 4.In contrast to the associations with pollution, associations between climate change and leafminer population densities were negligible. 5.Our results may help to explain the outbreaks of insect herbivores that are frequently observed in polluted environments. We show that they can result from the weakening of rapid (stabilizing) density dependence relative to the effects of destabilizing delayed density dependence. Moreover, our results may explain some of the variation reported in published studies of animal populations in polluted habitats. Variable results may emerge in part because of the location of the study sites on different parts of pollution gradients. Finally, in a rapidly changing world, effects of anthropogenic pollution may be as, or more, important than are effects of climate change on the future dynamics of animal populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
30471097 View in PubMed
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Retrospective analysis of the age at death in two heavily polluted and two unpolluted Russian towns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179808
Source
Chemosphere. 2004 Jul;56(4):405-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Mikhail V Kozlov
Author Affiliation
Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. mikoz@utu.fi
Source
Chemosphere. 2004 Jul;56(4):405-10
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Metallurgy
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Mortality - trends
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Abstract
Mean age at death during 1981-1999 was recorded in four small industrial towns located in the Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. Two of these towns (Nikel and Monchegorsk) are heavily contaminated by sulphur dioxide and toxic metals (primarily Ni, Cu, Cd) emitted by large nickel-copper smelters; two other towns (Apatity and Polyarnye Zori) are nearly unpolluted. The results did not support the hypothesis that human life span is significantly shorter in the contaminated communities; moreover, mean age at death was lowest in Polyarnye Zori, the town not polluted by either sulfur dioxide or heavy metals but located close to the nuclear power plant. It seems that the impact of hazards other than pollution (both social and environmental), which are common for the populations of the investigated towns, shorten the life span so much that the contribution of pollutants to the decline in life expectancy cannot be detected. However, the relative importance of the life-shortening diseases associated with pollution may increase with the (expected) improvement of the quality of life.
PubMed ID
15184004 View in PubMed
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Shelters of leaf-tying herbivores decompose faster than leaves damaged by free-living insects: Implications for nutrient turnover in polluted habitats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290778
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Oct 15; 568:946-951
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-15-2016
Author
Mikhail V Kozlov
Vitali Zverev
Elena L Zvereva
Author Affiliation
Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address: mikoz@utu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Oct 15; 568:946-951
Date
Oct-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Betula - physiology
Environmental pollution
Feces
Herbivory
Larva - growth & development - physiology
Moths - growth & development - physiology
Plant Leaves - physiology
Russia
Abstract
Leaf-eating insects can influence decomposition processes by modifying quality of leaf litter, and this impact can be especially pronounced in habitats where leaf-eating insects reach high densities, for example in heavily polluted areas. We hypothesized that the decomposition rate is faster for shelters of leaf-tying larvae than for leaves damaged by free-living insects, in particular due to the accumulation of larval frass within shelters. We exposed litter bags containing samples of three different compositions (shelters built by moth larvae, leaves damaged by free-living insects and intact leaves of mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) for one year at two heavily polluted sites near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk in north-western Russia and at two unpolluted sites. The decomposition rate of leaves damaged by free-living insects was 91% of that of undamaged leaves, whereas the mass loss of leaves composing shelters did not differ of that of undamaged leaves. These differences between leaves damaged by different guilds of herbivorous insects were uniform across the study sites, although the decomposition rate in polluted sites was reduced to 77% of that in unpolluted sites. Addition of larval frass to undamaged leaves had no effect on the subsequent decomposition rate. Therefore we suggest that damaged leaves tied by shelter-building larvae decompose faster than untied damaged leaves due to a looser physical structure of the litter, which creates favourable conditions for detritivores and soil decomposers. Thus, while leaf damage by insects per se reduces litter quality and its decomposition rate, structuring of litter by leaf-tying insects counterbalances these negative effects. We conclude that leaf-tying larvae, in contrast to free-living defoliators, do not impose negative effects on nutrient turnover rate even at their high densities, which are frequently observed in heavily polluted sites.
PubMed ID
27288287 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.