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Arctic berry extracts target the gut-liver axis to alleviate metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287743
Source
Diabetologia. 2017 Dec 21;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-21-2017
Author
Fernando F Anhê
Thibault V Varin
Mélanie Le Barz
Geneviève Pilon
Stéphanie Dudonné
Jocelyn Trottier
Philippe St-Pierre
Cory S Harris
Michel Lucas
Mélanie Lemire
Éric Dewailly
Olivier Barbier
Yves Desjardins
Denis Roy
André Marette
Source
Diabetologia. 2017 Dec 21;
Date
Dec-21-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
There is growing evidence that fruit polyphenols exert beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of polyphenolic extracts from five types of Arctic berries in a model of diet-induced obesity.
Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and orally treated with extracts of bog blueberry (BBE), cloudberry (CLE), crowberry (CRE), alpine bearberry (ABE), lingonberry (LGE) or vehicle (HFHS) for 8 weeks. An additional group of standard-chow-fed, vehicle-treated mice was included as a reference control for diet-induced obesity. OGTTs and insulin tolerance tests were conducted, and both plasma insulin and C-peptide were assessed throughout the OGTT. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and ELISAs were used to assess enterohepatic immunometabolic features. Faecal DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis was used to profile the gut microbiota.
Treatment with CLE, ABE and LGE, but not with BBE or CRE, prevented both fasting hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM [pmol/l]: chow 67.2?±?12.3, HFHS 153.9?±?19.3, BBE 114.4?±?14.3, CLE 82.5?±?13.0, CRE 152.3?±?24.4, ABE 90.6?±?18.0, LGE 95.4?±?10.5) and postprandial hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM AUC [pmol/l?×?min]: chow 14.3?±?1.4, HFHS 31.4?±?3.1, BBE 27.2?±?4.0, CLE 17.7?±?2.2, CRE 32.6?±?6.3, ABE 22.7?±?18.0, LGE 23.9?±?2.5). None of the berry extracts affected C-peptide levels or body weight gain. Levels of hepatic serine phosphorylated Akt were 1.6-, 1.5- and 1.2-fold higher with CLE, ABE and LGE treatment, respectively, and hepatic carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was 0.6-, 0.7- and 0.9-fold increased in these mice vs vehicle-treated, HFHS-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced liver triacylglycerol deposition, lower circulating endotoxins, alleviated hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and major gut microbial alterations (e.g. bloom of Akkermansia muciniphila, Turicibacter and Oscillibacter) in CLE-, ABE- and LGE-treated mice.
Our findings reveal novel mechanisms by which polyphenolic extracts from ABE, LGE and especially CLE target the gut-liver axis to protect diet-induced obese mice against metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, which importantly improves hepatic insulin clearance. These results support the potential benefits of these Arctic berries and their integration into health programmes to help attenuate obesity-related chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders.
All raw sequences have been deposited in the public European Nucleotide Archive server under accession number PRJEB19783 ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB19783 ).
PubMed ID
29270816 View in PubMed
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Arctic berry extracts target the gut-liver axis to alleviate metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297424
Source
Diabetologia. 2018 04; 61(4):919-931
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2018
Author
Fernando F Anhê
Thibault V Varin
Mélanie Le Barz
Geneviève Pilon
Stéphanie Dudonné
Jocelyn Trottier
Philippe St-Pierre
Cory S Harris
Michel Lucas
Mélanie Lemire
Éric Dewailly
Olivier Barbier
Yves Desjardins
Denis Roy
André Marette
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cardiology Axis of the Québec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Bureau Y4340, Québec City, QC, G1V 4G5, Canada.
Source
Diabetologia. 2018 04; 61(4):919-931
Date
04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
C-Peptide - blood
Diet, High-Fat
Endotoxemia - metabolism
Fatty Liver - drug therapy - metabolism
Fruit - chemistry
Glucose - metabolism
Homeostasis
Insulin - blood - metabolism
Insulin Resistance
Intestines - drug effects
Liver - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Obese
Obesity - metabolism
Plant Extracts - pharmacology
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Time Factors
Abstract
There is growing evidence that fruit polyphenols exert beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of polyphenolic extracts from five types of Arctic berries in a model of diet-induced obesity.
Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and orally treated with extracts of bog blueberry (BBE), cloudberry (CLE), crowberry (CRE), alpine bearberry (ABE), lingonberry (LGE) or vehicle (HFHS) for 8 weeks. An additional group of standard-chow-fed, vehicle-treated mice was included as a reference control for diet-induced obesity. OGTTs and insulin tolerance tests were conducted, and both plasma insulin and C-peptide were assessed throughout the OGTT. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and ELISAs were used to assess enterohepatic immunometabolic features. Faecal DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis was used to profile the gut microbiota.
Treatment with CLE, ABE and LGE, but not with BBE or CRE, prevented both fasting hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM [pmol/l]: chow 67.2?±?12.3, HFHS 153.9?±?19.3, BBE 114.4?±?14.3, CLE 82.5?±?13.0, CRE 152.3?±?24.4, ABE 90.6?±?18.0, LGE 95.4?±?10.5) and postprandial hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM AUC [pmol/l?×?min]: chow 14.3?±?1.4, HFHS 31.4?±?3.1, BBE 27.2?±?4.0, CLE 17.7?±?2.2, CRE 32.6?±?6.3, ABE 22.7?±?18.0, LGE 23.9?±?2.5). None of the berry extracts affected C-peptide levels or body weight gain. Levels of hepatic serine phosphorylated Akt were 1.6-, 1.5- and 1.2-fold higher with CLE, ABE and LGE treatment, respectively, and hepatic carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was 0.6-, 0.7- and 0.9-fold increased in these mice vs vehicle-treated, HFHS-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced liver triacylglycerol deposition, lower circulating endotoxins, alleviated hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and major gut microbial alterations (e.g. bloom of Akkermansia muciniphila, Turicibacter and Oscillibacter) in CLE-, ABE- and LGE-treated mice.
Our findings reveal novel mechanisms by which polyphenolic extracts from ABE, LGE and especially CLE target the gut-liver axis to protect diet-induced obese mice against metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, which importantly improves hepatic insulin clearance. These results support the potential benefits of these Arctic berries and their integration into health programmes to help attenuate obesity-related chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders.
All raw sequences have been deposited in the public European Nucleotide Archive server under accession number PRJEB19783 ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB19783 ).
PubMed ID
29270816 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessment of the implementation fidelity of the Arctic Char Distribution Project in Nunavik, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283130
Source
BMJ Glob Health. 2016 Nov;1(3):e000093
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Lara Gautier
Catherine M Pirkle
Christopher Furgal
Michel Lucas
Source
BMJ Glob Health. 2016 Nov;1(3):e000093
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In September 2011, the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services began supporting the Arctic Char Distribution Project (AC/DP) for pregnant women. This initiative promoted consumption of the fish Arctic char-a traditional Inuit food-by pregnant women living in villages of Nunavik, an area in northern Quebec (Canada) inhabited predominantly by people of Inuit ethnicity. This intervention was intended to reduce exposure to contaminants and improve food security in Inuit communities.
We assessed the project's implementation based on data collected from background documentation, field notes and qualitative interviews with project recipients and implementers. Themes emerging from the data are critically discussed in the light of the framework for implementation fidelity developed by Carroll et al in 2007.
Pregnant women fully embraced the initiative because of its cultural appropriateness. However, project implementation was incomplete: first because it did not cover all intended geographic areas, and second because of a recurring inconsistency in the supply and distribution of the fish. In addition, the initiative has been inconsistently funded and relies on multiple funding sources.
This work highlights the extent to which project complexity can impede successful implementation, particularly in terms of communication and coordination. We provide recommendations for improving project implementation and suggest amendments to the implementation fidelity framework.
PubMed ID
28588959 View in PubMed
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Blood and hair mercury concentrations among Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada): time trends, prenatal exposure and links to local fish consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298074
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1474706
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Susannah Ripley
Elizabeth Robinson
Louise Johnson-Down
Anne Andermann
Pierre Ayotte
Michel Lucas
Evert Nieboer
Author Affiliation
a Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health , McGill University , Montréal , Québec , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1474706
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fishes
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mercury - analysis - blood
Methylmercury Compounds - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology - etiology
Quebec - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To describe exposure to methylmercury among Cree, focusing on women of childbearing age, we used data from 2 studies. Multiple regression was employed to examine associations between blood and hair mercury concentrations and consumption of locally harvested fish. Approximately 9.9% of non-pregnant women aged 15-44 y and 3.9% of pregnant women required follow-up according to Health Canada's blood mercury guidance value of 40 nmol/L. 8% of hair mercury observations in the non-pregnant women and 2.5% among pregnant women exceeded the equivalent threshold of 10 nmol/g. The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 12.7 nmol/L in 1,429 persons aged 8 and over, and 17.7 nmol/L in adults aged 18 and older. The proportion of hair mercury concentrations greater than 12.5 nmol/g decreased in all age-sex groups when comparing the 2002-2009 data to published values for 1993-1994. Among women of childbearing age, local fish consumption was associated with increased blood and hair mercury concentrations. While over 90% of women of childbearing age in this population have acceptable levels of mercury, ongoing intake of mercury suggests that their consumption of fish with known high mercury content be minimised. Reducing consumption of fish known to be high in mercury content needs to be balanced with promoting ongoing connection to Cree culture and land-based activities that are also important determinants of health.
PubMed ID
29785879 View in PubMed
Less detail

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in relation to behavioral problems among young Inuit from Nunavik, Canada: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291899
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 Sep; 82(3):416-422
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Audray St-Jean
Salma Meziou
Cynthia Roy
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Michel Lucas
Author Affiliation
Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 Sep; 82(3):416-422
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Amino Acids, Aromatic - metabolism
Amino Acids, Branched-Chain - metabolism
Child
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Problem behavior
Abstract
BackgroundObesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs, and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.MethodsWe analyzed data on 181 children (with a mean age of 11.4 years at baseline) involved in the Nunavik Child Development Study. Plasma BCAA and AAA concentrations were measured in childhood (2005-2010). BCAA/AAA tertiles-the ratio of total BCAAs to AAAs-were considered as surrogate categorical independent variables. Behavioral problems were assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR) from the Child Behavior Checklist about 7 years later during adolescence (2013-2016). ANOVA ascertained relationships between BCAA/AAA tertiles and YSR outcomes.ResultsAscending BCAA/AAA tertiles were positively associated (Ptrend
Notes
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PubMed ID
28486439 View in PubMed
Less detail

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in relation to behavioral problems among young Inuit from Nunavik, Canada: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282388
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 May 09;
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-09-2017
Author
Audray St-Jean
Salma Meziou
Cynthia Roy
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Michel Lucas
Source
Pediatr Res. 2017 May 09;
Date
May-09-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUNDObesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.METHODSWe analyzed data on 181 children (mean age 11.4 years at baseline) involved in the Nunavik Child Development Study. Plasma BCAA and AAA concentrations were measured in childhood (2005-2010). BCAA/AAA tertiles - the ratio of total BCAAs to AAAs-were considered as a surrogate categorical independent variable. Behavioral problems were assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR) from the Child Behavior Checklist about 7 years later during adolescence (2013-2016). ANOVA ascertained relationships between BCAA/AAA tertiles and YSR outcomes.RESULTSAscending BCAA/AAA tertiles were positively associated (Ptrend
PubMed ID
28486439 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cannabis use in relation to obesity and insulin resistance in the inuit population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259422
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Dec 31;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-31-2014
Author
Gerard Ngueta
Richard E Bélanger
Elhadji A Laouan-Sidi
Michel Lucas
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Dec 31;
Date
Dec-31-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To ascertain the relationship between cannabis use, obesity, and insulin resistance.
Data on 786 Inuit adults from the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (2004) were analyzed. Information on cannabis use was obtained from a self-completed, confidential questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) served as surrogate markers of insulin resistance. Analysis of covariance and multivariate logistic regression ascertained relationships between cannabis use and outcomes.
Cannabis use was highly prevalent in the study population (57.4%) and was statistically associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (P
PubMed ID
25557382 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cardiovascular burden and related risk factors among Nunavik (Quebec) Inuit: insights from baseline findings in the circumpolar Inuit health in transition cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96676
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Jun;26(6):190-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat
Eric Dewailly
Rabia Louchini
Emilie Counil
Martin Noël
Annie Ferland
Michel Lucas
Béatriz Valera
Jean-Marie Ekoé
Robert Ladouceur
S. Déry
Grace Egeland
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. marie-ludivine.chateau-degat@crchul.ulaval.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Jun;26(6):190-6
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - ethnology - etiology
Diet
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Transition
Humans
Incidence
Inuits
Life Style
Male
Obesity - complications - ethnology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - ethnology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Inuit are commonly portrayed to be somehow protected from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through their traditional lifestyle and diet. However, actual sociocultural transition and related major, modifiable risk factors have scarcely been quantified in the Inuit population. Such knowledge is extremely valuable in terms of public health intervention.METHODS: A total of 887 Inuit residents from Nunavik, Quebec, participated in a cohort study. The estimates presented were derived from anthropometric and biological measurements gathered at the time of recruitment and enhanced by information collected in the medical file of each participant. All estimates were corrected for a complex sampling strategy and bootstrapped to ensure the representativeness of the general Nunavik population.RESULTS: Overall, 19% of Inuit had a disease of the circulatory system according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision. Among all disorders, peripheral circulatory system disease was the most prevalent (9%). Prevalences of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were of similar magnitude (2.5%). No significant difference in disease prevalence was noted between sexes. The major modifiable CVD risk factors were smoking (84%), obesity (49%) (body mass index of greater than 30 kgm2) and elevated blood pressure (13085 mmHg or greater) (18%). Prevalences were globally higher among women.CONCLUSION: The current belief that the Inuit are protected from CVD is seriously questioned by the results of the present study. Considering the extremely high prevalence of CVD risk factors, a population-based intervention reinforced for women is urgently needed to reduce their risk.
PubMed ID
20548980 View in PubMed
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Diet quality indices in relation to metabolic syndrome in an Indigenous Cree (Eeyouch) population in northern Québec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283930
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jul 07;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-07-2017
Author
Mathilde Lavigne-Robichaud
Jean-Claude Moubarac
Stéfanie Lantagne-Lopez
Louise Johnson-Down
Malek Batal
Elhadji A Laouan Sidi
Michel Lucas
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jul 07;:1-9
Date
Jul-07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To assess associations between three diet quality indices and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec, Canada, as well as to evaluate their pertinence in this Indigenous context.
The alternative-Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), the Food Quality Score (FQS) and the contribution of ultra-processed products (UPP) to total daily dietary energy intake using the NOVA classification were calculated from 24 h food recalls. MetS was determined with the latest harmonized definition. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between quintiles of dietary quality scores with MetS and its components.
Study sample from the 2005-2009 cross-sectional Nituuchischaayihititaau Aschii Environment-and-Health Study.
Eeyouch (n 811) from seven James Bay communities (=18 years old).
MetS prevalence was 56·6 % with 95·4 % abdominal adiposity, 50·1 % elevated fasting plasma glucose, 43·4 % hypertension, 38·6 % elevated TAG and 44·5 % reduced HDL cholesterol. Comparing highest and lowest quintiles of scores, adjusted OR (95 % CI) of MetS was 0·70 (0·39, 1·08; P-trend=0·05) for aHEI-2010, 1·06 (0·63, 1·76; P-trend=0·87) for FQS and 1·90 (1·14, 3·17; P-trend=0·04) for the contribution of UPP to total daily dietary energy intake.
Although diet quality indices have been associated with cardiometabolic risk, only the dietary intake of UPP was significantly associated with MetS in the Eeyouch. Indices tailored to the food environment of northern communities are essential to further understand the impact of diet quality in this context.
PubMed ID
28683844 View in PubMed
Less detail

Diet quality indices in relation to metabolic syndrome in an Indigenous Cree (Eeyouch) population in northern Québec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294585
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 Jan; 21(1):172-180
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Mathilde Lavigne-Robichaud
Jean-Claude Moubarac
Stéfanie Lantagne-Lopez
Louise Johnson-Down
Malek Batal
Elhadji A Laouan Sidi
Michel Lucas
Author Affiliation
1Department of Social & Preventive Medicine,Laval University,Québec,QC,Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 Jan; 21(1):172-180
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - ethnology
Female
Food Quality
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Mental Recall
Metabolic Syndrome - blood - ethnology
Nutrition Assessment
Obesity - blood - ethnology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Triglycerides - blood
Waist Circumference
Abstract
To assess associations between three diet quality indices and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec, Canada, as well as to evaluate their pertinence in this Indigenous context.
The alternative-Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), the Food Quality Score (FQS) and the contribution of ultra-processed products (UPP) to total daily dietary energy intake using the NOVA classification were calculated from 24 h food recalls. MetS was determined with the latest harmonized definition. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between quintiles of dietary quality scores with MetS and its components.
Study sample from the 2005-2009 cross-sectional Nituuchischaayihititaau Aschii Environment-and-Health Study.
Eeyouch (n 811) from seven James Bay communities (=18 years old).
MetS prevalence was 56·6 % with 95·4 % abdominal adiposity, 50·1 % elevated fasting plasma glucose, 43·4 % hypertension, 38·6 % elevated TAG and 44·5 % reduced HDL cholesterol. Comparing highest and lowest quintiles of scores, adjusted OR (95 % CI) of MetS was 0·70 (0·39, 1·08; P-trend=0·05) for aHEI-2010, 1·06 (0·63, 1·76; P-trend=0·87) for FQS and 1·90 (1·14, 3·17; P-trend=0·04) for the contribution of UPP to total daily dietary energy intake.
Although diet quality indices have been associated with cardiometabolic risk, only the dietary intake of UPP was significantly associated with MetS in the Eeyouch. Indices tailored to the food environment of northern communities are essential to further understand the impact of diet quality in this context.
PubMed ID
28683844 View in PubMed
Less detail

33 records – page 1 of 4.