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Air pollution and cardiac arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179578
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2004 Jun;16(6-7):353-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Sverre Vedal
Kira Rich
Michael Brauer
Rick White
John Petkau
Author Affiliation
National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80246, USA. vedals@njc.org
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2004 Jun;16(6-7):353-62
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Arrhythmias, Cardiac - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child
Defibrillators, Implantable
Electric Countershock - instrumentation
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Meteorological Concepts
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between short-term increases in outdoor air pollution concentrations and adverse cardiovascular effects, including cardiac mortality and hospitalizations. One possible mechanism behind this association is that air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing a cardiac arrhythmia. To investigate this hypothesis, dates of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discharges were abstracted from patient records in patients attending the two ICD clinics in Vancouver, BC, for the years 1997-2000. Daily outdoor air pollutant concentrations and daily meteorological data from the Vancouver region were obtained for the same 4-yr period. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between short-term increases in air pollutant concentrations and ICD discharges while controlling for temporal trends, meteorology, and serial correlation in the data. Air pollution concentrations in the Vancouver region were relatively low from 1997 to 2000, as expected. In the 50 patients who resided within the Vancouver region and who experienced at least 1 ICD discharge during the period of follow-up, no significant associations between increased air pollution concentrations and increased ICD discharges were present. When the patient sample was restricted to the 16 patients who had at least 6 months of follow-up and experienced a rate of at least 2 days with ICD discharges per year, there was a statistically significant association between increased sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration and ICD discharge 2 days after the SO(2) increase. When stratified by season, no associations between increased air pollutant concentrations and increased risk of ICD discharge were observed in the summer, although for several pollutants, concentration increases were associated with a decrease in ICD discharges. In the winter, increased SO(2) concentrations again were seen to be associated with increased risk of ICD discharge, at both 2 and 3 days following increases in SO(2) concentrations. These findings provide no compelling evidence that short-term increases in relatively low concentrations of outdoor air pollutants have an adverse effect on individuals at risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The findings regarding SO(2) are difficult to interpret. They may be chance findings. Alternatively, given the very low concentrations of SO(2) that were present in Vancouver, SO(2) may have been serving as a surrogate measure of other environmental or meteorological factors.
PubMed ID
15204751 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187142
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):45-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Sverre Vedal
Michael Brauer
Richard White
John Petkau
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA. vedals@njc.org
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):45-52
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - classification - poisoning
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Cause of Death
Databases as Topic
Humans
Linear Models
Meteorological Concepts
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - poisoning
Ozone - analysis - poisoning
Particle Size
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Seasons
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis - poisoning
Urban health
Abstract
The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from January 1994 through December 1996 were very low: the 50th and 90th percentiles of daily average PM(10) concentrations were 13 and 23 micro g/m(3), respectively, and 27 and 39 ppb, respectively, for 1-hr maximum ozone. Analyses of 3 years of daily pollution (PM(10), ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) concentrations and mortality counts showed that the dominant associations were between ozone and total mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the summer, and between nitrogen dioxide and total mortality in the winter, although some association with PM(10) may also have been present. We conclude that increases in low concentrations of air pollution are associated with increased daily mortality. These findings may support the notion that no threshold pollutant concentrations are present, but they also raise concern that these effects may not be effects of the measured pollutants themselves, but rather of some other factor(s) present in the air pollution-meteorology mix.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12515678 View in PubMed
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An air filter intervention study of endothelial function among healthy adults in a woodsmoke-impacted community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137685
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 1;183(9):1222-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2011
Author
Ryan W Allen
Chris Carlsten
Barbara Karlen
Sara Leckie
Stephan van Eeden
Sverre Vedal
Imelda Wong
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Health Sciences, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. allenr@sfu.ca
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 1;183(9):1222-30
Date
May-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - blood - urine
Biological Markers - blood - urine
British Columbia
C-Reactive Protein
Cross-Over Studies
Dinoprost - urine
Endothelial Cells
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Filtration - methods
Humans
Hyperemia
Inflammation - blood
Inhalation Exposure
Lipid Peroxidation
Male
Malondialdehyde - urine
Middle Aged
Oxidative Stress
Reference Values
Smoke
Young Adult
Abstract
Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. One hypothesized mechanism involves oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction.
To assess an intervention's impact on particle exposures and endothelial function among healthy adults in a woodsmoke-impacted community. We also investigated the underlying role of oxidative stress and inflammation in relation to exposure reductions.
Portable air filters were used in a randomized crossover intervention study of 45 healthy adults exposed to consecutive 7-day periods of filtered and nonfiltered air.
Reactive hyperemia index was measured as an indicator of endothelial function via peripheral artery tonometry, and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and band cells) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2a)) were quantified. Air filters reduced indoor fine particle concentrations by 60%. Filtration was associated with a 9.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.9-18%) increase in reactive hyperemia index and a 32.6% (4.4-60.9%) decrease in C-reactive protein. Decreases in particulate matter and the woodsmoke tracer levoglucosan were associated with reduced band cell counts. There was limited evidence of more pronounced effects on endothelial function and level of systemic inflammation among males, overweight participants, younger participants, and residents of wood-burning homes. No associations were noted for oxidative stress markers.
Air filtration was associated with improved endothelial function and decreased concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers but not markers of oxidative stress. Our results support the hypothesis that systemic inflammation and impaired endothelial function, both predictors of cardiovascular morbidity, can be favorably influenced by reducing indoor particle concentrations.
PubMed ID
21257787 View in PubMed
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Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125348
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2012 May 1;175(9):898-906
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2012
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Hugh W Davies
Mieke Koehoorn
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2012 May 1;175(9):898-906
Date
May-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Noise - adverse effects
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.
PubMed ID
22491084 View in PubMed
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Associations of ambient air pollution with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116489
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2013
Author
Wen Qi Gan
J Mark FitzGerald
Chris Carlsten
Mohsen Sadatsafavi
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Great Neck, NY 11021, USA. wgan@nshs.edu
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Date
Apr-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - mortality
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion.
To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality.
This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period. All residents aged 45-85 years who resided in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known COPD at baseline were included in this study (n = 467,994). Residential exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (black carbon, particulate matter
PubMed ID
23392442 View in PubMed
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Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138466
Source
J Urban Health. 2010 Dec;87(6):969-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Meghan Winters
Michael Brauer
Eleanor M Setton
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. mwinters@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2010 Dec;87(6):969-93
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Automobile Driving - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Bicycling - physiology - psychology
British Columbia
Confidence Intervals
Decision Making
Environment Design - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Motor Activity - physiology
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Young Adult
Abstract
A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, trip destinations, and along the route between. We analyzed 3,280 utilitarian bicycle and car trips in Metro Vancouver, Canada made by 1,902 adults, including both current and potential cyclists. Objective measures were developed for built environment characteristics related to the physical environment, land use patterns, the road network, and bicycle-specific facilities. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the likelihood that a trip was made by bicycle, adjusting for trip distance and personal demographics. Separate models were constructed for each spatial zone, and a global model examined the relative influence of the three zones. In total, 31% (1,023 out of 3,280) of trips were made by bicycle. Increased odds of bicycling were associated with less hilliness; higher intersection density; less highways and arterials; presence of bicycle signage, traffic calming, and cyclist-activated traffic lights; more neighborhood commercial, educational, and industrial land uses; greater land use mix; and higher population density. Different factors were important within each spatial zone. Overall, the characteristics of routes were more influential than origin or destination characteristics. These findings indicate that the built environment has a significant influence on healthy travel decisions, and spatial context is important. Future research should explicitly consider relevant spatial zones when investigating the relationship between physical activity and urban form.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21174189 View in PubMed
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Changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of death from coronary heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142555
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Lillian Tamburic
Hugh W Davies
Paul A Demers
Mieke Koehoorn
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Dibutyl Phthalate
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Residential proximity to road traffic is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. It is unknown, however, whether changes in residential proximity to traffic could alter the risk of CHD mortality.
We used a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period to explore the association between changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of CHD mortality. The cohort comprised all residents aged 45-85 years who resided in metropolitan Vancouver during the exposure period and without known CHD at baseline (n = 450,283). Residential proximity to traffic was estimated using a geographic information system. CHD deaths during the follow-up period were identified using provincial death registration database. The data were analyzed using logistic regression.
Compared with the subjects consistently living away from road traffic (>150 m from a highway or >50 m from a major road) during the 9-year study period, those consistently living close to traffic (
PubMed ID
20585255 View in PubMed
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Chronic exposure to high levels of particulate air pollution and small airway remodeling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185551
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
Andrew Churg
Michael Brauer
Maria del Carmen Avila-Casado
Teresa I Fortoul
Joanne L Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. achurg@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Airway Obstruction - etiology - pathology
Autopsy
British Columbia
Cities
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Mexico
Middle Aged
Particle Size
Pulmonary Alveoli - pathology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - etiology
Smoking
Urban Population
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with decreased pulmonary function and the development of chronic airflow obstruction. To investigate the possible role of PM-induced abnormalities in the small airways in these functional changes, we examined histologic sections from the lungs of 20 women from Mexico City, a high PM locale. All subjects were lifelong residents of Mexico City, were never-smokers, never had occupational dust exposure, and never used biomass fuel for cooking. Twenty never-smoking, non-dust-exposed subjects from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a low PM region, were used as a control. By light microscopy, abnormal small airways with fibrotic walls and excess muscle, many containing visible dust, were present in the Mexico City lungs. Formal grading analysis confirmed the presence of significantly greater amounts of fibrous tissue and muscle in the walls of the airways in the Mexico City compared with the Vancouver lungs. Electron microscopic particle burden measurements on four cases from Mexico City showed that carbonaceous aggregates of ultrafine particles, aggregates likely to be combustion products, were present in the airway mucosa. We conclude that PM penetrates into and is retained in the walls of small airways, and that, even in nonsmokers, long-term exposure to high levels of ambient particulate pollutants is associated with small airway remodeling. This process may produce chronic airflow obstruction.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12727599 View in PubMed
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A cohort study of traffic-related air pollution impacts on birth outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157243
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Michael Brauer
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Mieke Koehoorn
Paul Demers
Catherine Karr
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver BC V6T1Z3 Canada. brauer@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Birth weight
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Vehicle Emissions - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Evidence suggests that air pollution exposure adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have examined individual-level intraurban exposure contrasts.
We evaluated the impacts of air pollution on small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight, low full-term birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth using spatiotemporal exposure metrics.
With linked administrative data, we identified 70,249 singleton births (1999-2002) with complete covariate data (sex, ethnicity, parity, birth month and year, income, education) and maternal residential history in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We estimated residential exposures by month of pregnancy using nearest and inverse-distance weighting (IDW) of study area monitors [carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter
Notes
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Erratum In: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Dec;116(12):A519
PubMed ID
18470315 View in PubMed
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Comparison between different traffic-related particle indicators: elemental carbon (EC), PM2.5 mass, and absorbance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15270
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Josef Cyrys
Joachim Heinrich
Gerard Hoek
Kees Meliefste
Marie Lewné
Ulrike Gehring
Tom Bellander
Paul Fischer
Patricia van Vliet
Michael Brauer
H-Erich Wichmann
Bert Brunekreef
Author Affiliation
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. cyrys@gsf.de
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Air Pollutants, Environmental - analysis
Carbon - chemistry
Comparative Study
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Particle Size
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Here we compare PM(2.5) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) mass and filter absorbance measurements with elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in parallel at the same site as well as collocated PM(2.5) and PM(10) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) mass and absorbance measurements. The data were collected within the Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA) study in Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden. The study was designed to assess the health impact of spatial contrasts in long-term average concentrations. The measurement sites were distributed between background and traffic locations. Annual EC and PM(2.5) absorbance measurements were at traffic sites on average 43-84% and 26-76% higher, respectively, compared to urban background sites. The contrast for PM(2.5) mass measurements was lower (8-35%). The smaller contrast observed for PM(2.5) mass in comparison with PM(2.5) absorbance and EC documents that PM(2.5) mass underestimates exposure contrasts related to motorized traffic emissions. The correlation between PM(10) and PM(2.5) was high, documenting that most of the spatial variation of PM(10) was because of PM(2.5). The measurement of PM(2.5) absorbance was highly correlated with EC measurements and suggests that absorbance can be used as a simple, inexpensive and non-destructive method to estimate motorized traffic-related particulate air pollution. The EC/absorbance relation differed between countries and site type (background/traffic), supporting the need for site-specific calibrations of the simple absorbance method. While the ratio between PM(2.5) and PM(10) mass ranged from 0.54 to 0.68, the ratio of PM(2.5) absorbance and PM(10) absorbance was 0.96-0.97, indicating that PM(2.5) absorbance captures nearly all of the particle absorbance.
PubMed ID
12679793 View in PubMed
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