Phylogenetic network analysis and understanding of waterfowl migration patterns suggest that the Eurasian H5N8 clade 188.8.131.52 avian influenza virus emerged in late 2013 in China, spread in early 2014 to South Korea and Japan, and reached Siberia and Beringia by summer 2014 via migratory birds. Three genetically distinct subgroups emerged and subsequently spread along different flyways during fall 2014 into Europe, North America, and East Asia, respectively. All three subgroups reappeared in Japan, a wintering site for waterfowl from Eurasia and parts of North America.
Cites: Science. 2005 Aug 19;309(5738):120616000410