Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.
Acute studies with alginate-based preloads suggested that these strong gelling fibers may induce increased feelings of satiety and reduce energy intakes. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of alginate supplementation on body weight regulation are lacking.
The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects in subjects of alginate supplementation in conjunction with energy restriction (-300 kcal/d) on loss of body weight and fat and, second, on metabolic risk markers in comparison with in a placebo group.
In a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 96 obese subjects to either an energy-restricted diet plus a placebo preload supplement or an energy-restricted diet plus an alginate-based preload supplement (15 g fiber). The preload was administered as a beverage 3 times/d before main meals for a period of 12 wk.
No differences in loss of body weight and fat between groups were shown in the intension-to-treat (ITT) analysis (P > 0.1). However, in the completer analysis (n = 80), we showed a greater weight loss with alginate (6.78 ? 3.67 kg) than with the placebo (5.04 ? 3.40 kg) (P = 0.03), which was mainly attributed to a reduction in the percentage of body fat (P = 0.03). In the ITT analysis, a larger decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was shown in the placebo group than in the alginate group (P 0.1).
These results suggest that alginate supplementation as an adjunct to energy restriction may improve weight loss in obese subjects who complete a 12-wk dietary intervention.
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Several B-vitamins act as co-factors in one-carbon metabolism, a pathway that plays a central role in several chronic diseases. However, there is a lack of knowledge of how diet affects markers in one-carbon metabolism. The aim of this study was to explore dietary patterns and components associated with one-carbon metabolites. We hypothesized that intake of whole-grains and fish would be associated with lower Hcy, and higher SAM:SAH ratio due to their nutrient content. We assessed dietary information using a four-day dietary record in 118 men and women with features of the metabolic syndrome. In addition we assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition and plasma alkylresorcinols. Plasma s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), homocysteine (Hcy) and vitamin B12 was included as one-carbon metabolism markers. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to explore dietary patterns and multiple linear regression models to examine associations between dietary factors and one-carbon metabolites. PCA separated subjects based on prudent and unhealthy dietary patterns, but the dietary pattern score was not related to the one-carbon metabolites. Whole grain intake was found to be inversely associated to plasma Hcy (-4.7% (-9.3; 0.0), P=.05) and total grain intake tended to be positively associated with SAM and SAH (2.4% (-0.5; 5.5), P=.08; 5.8% (-0.2; 12.1), P=.06, respectively, per SD increase in cereal intake). Fish intake was inversely associated with plasma Hcy and SAH concentrations (-5.4% (-9.7; -0.8), P=.02 and -7.0% (-12.1; -1.5), P=.01, respectively) and positively associated with the SAM:SAH ratio (6.2% (1.6; 11.0), P=.008). In conclusion, intake and fish and whole-grain appear to be associated with a beneficial one-carbon metabolism profile. This indicates that dietary components could play a role in regulation of one-carbon metabolism with a potential impact on disease prevention.
Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System.
Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities.
Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P
Despite increased interest in marine oil exploration in the Arctic, little is known about the fate of Arctic offshore oil pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we examine the oil degradation potential for an Arctic site (Disko Bay, Greenland) and discuss this in relation to a temperate site (North Sea, Denmark). Biodegradation was assessed following exposure to Oseberg Blend crude oil (100mgL(-1)) in microcosms. Changes in oil hydrocarbon fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-substituted PAHs, dibenzothiophenes, n-alkanes and alkyltoluenes were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the Disko Bay sample, the degradation order was n-alkanes>alkyltoluenes (para->meta->ortho-isomers)>PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, whereas, the degradation order in the North Sea samples was PAHs and dibenzothiophenes>alkyltoluenes>n-alkanes. These differences in degradation patterns significantly affect the environmental risk of oil spills and emphasise the need to consider the specific environmental conditions when conducting risk assessments of Arctic oil pollution.
Many patients with celiac disease experience difficulties in adherence to a gluten-free diet. Methods for testing compliance to a gluten-free diet are costly and cumbersome. Thus, a simple biomarker of gluten intake is needed in a clinical setting and will be useful for epidemiologic studies investigating wider effects of gluten intake.
The aim was to evaluate plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations as a measure of gluten intake.
In this randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study in 52 Danish adults with features of the metabolic syndrome, we compared 8 wk of a gluten-rich and gluten-poor diet separated by a washout period of =6 wk. We measured fasting plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols to determine if they reflected differences in gluten intake as a secondary outcome of the original study. In addition, we investigated in 118 Danish adults the cross-sectional association between self-reported gluten intake and plasma alkylresorcinols in the same and a similar study at baseline. We used mixed-model ANCOVA for examining treatment effects, a classification tree to determine compliance to the gluten-poor diet, and linear regression models for examining baseline correlation between plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations and gluten intake.
Plasma total alkylresorcinols decreased more during the gluten-poor period (geometric mean: -124.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -156.5, -93.0 nmol/L) than in the gluten-rich period (geometric mean: -31.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -63.1, -0.4 nmol/L) (P
The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its antioestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in the ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort. The cohort study included 29 875 women aged 50–64 years enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was provided by self-administrated questionnaires and blood was drawn from each participant. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used for biochemical determination of plasma enterolactone. A total of 173 cases and 149 randomly selected cohort members were included. We estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% CI by a Cox proportional hazards model. A 20 nmol/l higher plasma concentration of enterolactone was associated with a non-significant lower risk of endometrial cancer (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84, 1.04). When excluding women with low enterolactone concentrations (quartile 1) due to potential recent antibiotic use, the association became slightly stronger, but remained non-significant (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79, 1.02). Menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy or BMI did not modify the association. In conclusion, we found some support for a possible inverse association between plasma enterolactone concentration and endometrial cancer incidence.
The study has investigated the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at Danish rehabilitation institutions and drug centres. Questionnaires were sent to 147 centre leaders at 52 rehabilitation institutions and 95 drug centres. CAM is offered at 37.5% of the rehabilitation institutions and at 61.1% of the drug centres. Twenty-one different CAM modalities were used. Acupuncture and NADA-acupuncture had the highest prevalence. Motives for offering CAM were most often experienced effects within the institution and inspiration from other institutions.
Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole-grain consumption on health outcomes. We studied the effect of replacing refined wheat (RW) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of ~1250 kJ/d) with RW or WW foods providing 2 MJ/d. Body weight and composition, blood pressure, and concentration of circulating risk markers were measured at wk 0, 6, and 12. Fecal output and energy excretion were assessed during run-in and wk 12. Plasma alkylresorcinol analysis indicated good compliance with the intervention diets. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline in both the RW (-2.7 ± 1.9 kg) and WW (-3.6 ± 3.2 kg) groups, but the decreases did not differ between the groups (P = 0.11). The reduction in body fat percentage was greater in the WW group (-3.0%) than in the RW group (-2.1%) (P = 0.04). Serum total and LDL cholesterol increased by ~5% (P
Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrollment in 1993-1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was derived from self-administered questionnaires. The incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on a Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 24,418 women included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer.