The aim was to study whether the anticholinergic burden of drugs is related to xerostomia and salivary secretion among community-dwelling elderly people.
Anticholinergic drugs have been shown to be a risk factor for dry mouth, but little is known about the effects of cumulative exposure to anticholinergic drugs measured by anticholinergic burden on salivary secretion or xerostomia.
The study population consisted of 152 community-dwelling, dentate, non-smoking, older people from the Oral Health GeMS study. The data were collected by interviews and clinical examinations. Anticholinergic burden was determined using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). A Poisson regression model with robust error variance was used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%).
Participants with a high-anticholinergic burden (ADS = 3) were more likely to have xerostomia (RR: 3.17; CI: 1.44-6.96), low-unstimulated salivary flow (
To investigate whether alcohol use is associated with deepened periodontal pockets and whether this association is dependent on age, gender or socioeconomic position (SEP).
This cross-sectional study, based on the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of dentate, non-smoking Finnish adults aged 30-65 years (n?=?3059). The outcome was the number of teeth with deepened (=4?mm) periodontal pockets. The exposure was self-reported alcohol use assessed as amount, frequency, and use over the risk limit. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
In this study, alcohol use did not consistently associate with the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets. An association with the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets was found among men, older participants, and those participants belonging to basic or intermediate educational groups. An association with poor periodontal health was observed among men or older participants who belonged to the basic or intermediate educational group, whereas such associations were not observed among those participants belonging to the higher educational group.
The association between alcohol use and periodontal health appears to be confounded by individual characteristics such as age, gender, and especially one's SEP.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether periodontal condition is associated with hypertension and systolic blood pressure.
The study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years (n = 1296) in the national Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) and deep (=6 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding were used as explanatory variables. Hypertension and systolic blood pressure were used as outcome variables.
There was no consistent association between the number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) or deep (=6 mm) (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12) periodontal pockets and hypertension after adjusting for confounding factors. Nor was there any essential association between the number of bleeding sextants and hypertension.
Periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding did not appear to be related to hypertension in non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years. Further studies using experimental study designs would be required to determine the role of infectious periodontal diseases in the development or progression of hypertension.
To study whether periodontal condition is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
A population-based follow-up study was conducted among persons born in 1935 and living in the city of Oulu, Finland (n = 395). The baseline examinations were done during 1990-1992, and the follow-up examinations were done during 2007-2008. The data were gathered by questionnaires, laboratory tests and clinical measurements. Poisson regression models were used in the data analyses.
The adjusted rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the incident T2DM among subjects with 4-5 mm deep periodontal pockets (n = 98), among subjects with 6 mm deep or deeper periodontal pockets (n = 91), and among edentulous subjects (n = 118) were 1.32 (95% CI: 0.69-2.53), 1.56 (95% CI: 0.84-2.92) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.53-1.89), respectively, compared to dentate subjects without deepened (4 mm deep or deeper) periodontal pockets (n = 88). The adjusted RR per site (the number of sites with deepened periodontal pockets as a continuous variable) was 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00-1.04).
Poor periodontal condition may be a predictor of the development of T2DM. However, the causality between periodontal condition and the development of T2DM remains uncertain.
Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland Finnish Doctoral Program of Oral Sciences (FINDOS), Turku, Finland Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
Saxlin T, Ylöstalo P, Suominen-Taipale L, Männistö S, Knuuttila M. Association between periodontal infection and obesity: results of the Health 2000 Survey. J Clin Periodontol 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01677.x ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the role of periodontal infection in obesity in an adult population. Material and methods: This study was based on a subpopulation of the Health 2000 Survey that included dentate, non-diabetic subjects, aged 30-49 years (n=2784). Obesity was measured using the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC). The extent of periodontal infection was measured using the number of teeth with deepened (4 mm deep or deeper) periodontal pockets and was categorized into four categories (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7 or more). Results: The number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets was found to be associated with BMI in an exposure-response manner among the total study population. The association was found among men and women, and also among never-smokers. The number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets was also associated with BF% and WC among never-smokers. Conclusion: Periodontal infection measured by means of the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets appears to be associated with obesity. However, no inferences about causality can be made and further studies are needed to clarify the possible role of periodontal infection in obesity.
To explore the association of depression and anxiety with two oral health outcomes, dental caries and periodontal disease and assess possible mediators for any of the associations.
Secondary analysis of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Depression was assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory and anxiety with Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Number of decayed teeth included carious lesions reaching dentine; periodontal disease was number of teeth with periodontal pockets of 4 mm or deeper. Third molars were excluded. The association of mental disorders and oral health was tested in regression models adjusted for confounders and potential mediators.
Depression was associated with number of decayed teeth only among 35- to 54-year-olds. The association between anxiety and the number of decayed teeth was not statistically significant. Depression and periodontal pocketing were not significantly associated.
Depression was significantly associated with number of decayed teeth only among participants aged 35-54 old and not with other age groups. Neither depression nor anxiety was significantly related to periodontal disease.
Apart from the effects of vitamin D on bone metabolism, it is also known for its immunomodulatory properties. However, so far, it is not clear whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] exerts any beneficial effect on the periodontium. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the serum level of 25(OH)D is related to periodontal condition, measured by means of pocketing and gingival bleeding.
This cross-sectional study is based on a non-smoking subpopulation without diabetes of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (N = 1,262). Periodontal condition was measured as the number of teeth with deep (=4 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of bleeding sextants per individual. Serum 25(OH)D level was determined by means of a standard laboratory measurement. Prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models.
There were practically no associations between serum 25(OH)D level and teeth with deep (=4 mm) periodontal pockets or bleeding sextants. A somewhat lower proportion of teeth with deep periodontal pockets was found in higher serum 25(OH)D quintiles among individuals with a good oral hygiene level.
Serum 25(OH)D did not seem to be related to periodontal condition, measured as periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding in this low-risk, low-25(OH)D status population.
To study the associations of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the handgrip strength with oral self-care among dentate home-dwelling elderly people in Finland.
The study analysed data for 168 dentate participants (mean age 80.6 years) in the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) study. Each participant received a clinical oral examination and structured interview in 2004-2005. Functional status was assessed using the IADL scale and handgrip strength was measured using handheld dynamometry.
Study participants with high IADL (scores 7-8) had odds ratios (ORs) for brushing their teeth at least twice a day of 2.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1-6.8], for using toothpaste at least twice a day of 2.0 (CI 0.8-5.2) and for having good oral hygiene of 2.8 (CI 1.0-8.3) when compared with participants with low IADL (scores =6). Participants in the upper tertiles of the handgrip strength had ORs for brushing the teeth at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.9), for using the toothpaste at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.8) and for good oral hygiene of 1.1 (CI 0.5-2.4) in comparison with the study subjects in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength.
The results of this study suggest that the functional status, measured by means of the IADL scale, but not handgrip strength, is an important determinant of oral self-care among the home-dwelling elderly.
Our aim in this paper was to investigate active coping in relation to optimism, dental health behavior and self-reported dental health among 31-yr-old men and women born in Northern Finland in 1966. Connecting coping strategies and optimism with health behavior is an unexplored approach in dentistry, even though both coping strategies and optimism are known to be associated with many health outcomes. The data were based on a postal questionnaire, which was sent to the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort at age 31 yr (n = 11 541). The number of replies was 8690, with a 75.3% response rate. Active coping was measured using the Ways of Coping Checklist and optimism using a revised Life Orientation Test. Prevalence proportion ratios were estimated by applying a log-binomial regression models. The results showed a correlation between active coping and optimism. Both active coping and optimism were related to different dental health behaviors. The effect of active coping on dental health behavior disappeared by adjusting for optimism, education and gender. The results support the previous findings that active coping acts as a mediator between optimism and health. Optimism was also related to self-reported dental health, which supports the comprehensiveness of optimism as a determinant for health.
Gerodontology 2010; Dementia and oral health among subjects aged 75 years or older Objective: To study the association between diagnosed dementia and oral health, focusing on the type of dementia, among an elderly population aged 75 years or older. Background: Elderly people with dementia are at risk from oral diseases, but to date, only a few studies have analysed the association between type of dementia and oral health, and their results are inconclusive. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study is based on the Geriatric multi-disciplinary strategy (Gems) study that included 76 demented and 278 non-demented subjects. The data were collected by means of an interview and an oral clinical examination. The type of dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Poisson's and logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks (RR), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (CI). Results: Our results showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia had an increased likelihood of having carious teeth, teeth with deep periodontal pockets, and poor oral and denture hygiene, compared with non-demented persons. The results showed that the type of dementia does not seem to be an essential determinant of oral health. Conclusions: Among the elderly aged 75 years or older, patients with Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia are at increased risk of poor oral health and poor oral hygiene.