We evaluated the predictive value of interim positon emission tomography (I-PET) after one course of chemoimmunotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One hundred and twelve patients with DLBCL were enrolled. All patients had PET/computed tomography (CT) scans performed after one course of chemotherapy (PET-1). I-PET scans were categorized according to International Harmonization Project criteria (IHP), Deauville 5-point scale (D 5PS) with scores 1-3 considered negative (D 5PS > 3) and D 5PS with scores 1-4 considered negative (D 5PS = 5). Ratios of tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) to liver SUVmax were also analyzed. We found no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between PET-negative and PET-positive patients according to IHP and D 5PS > 3. The 2-year PFS using D 5PS = 5 was 50.9% in the PET-positive group and 84.8% in the PET-negative group (p = 0.002). A tumor/liver SUVmax cut-off of 3.1 to distinguish D 5PS scores of 4 and 5 provided the best prognostic value. PET after one course of chemotherapy was not able to safely discriminate PET-positive and PET-negative patients in different prognostic groups.
The aim of this study was to compare cancer mortality among migrant patients with cancer mortality in Danish-born patients.
This was a historical prospective cohort study. All non-Western migrants (n = 56,273) who were granted a right to residency in Denmark between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999 were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with Danish-born patients. Cancer patients in the cohort were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and deaths and emigrations through the Central Population Register. Using a Cox regression model, mean sex-specific hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated by ethnicity; adjusting for age, income, co-morbidity and disease stage.
No significant differences were observed in mortality for gynaecological cancers between migrant women (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80) and Danish-born women. Correspondingly, migrant women (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.49-1.17) showed no significant differences in breast cancer mortality compared with Danish-born women. Regarding lung cancer, neither migrant women (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.45-1.40) nor men (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-1.14) presented statistical variances in mortality rates compared with Danish-born patients. Similarly, for colorectal cancer, migrant women (HR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.27-1.55) and men (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 0.75-3.36) displayed no significant differences compared with Danish-born patients.
Different trends were observed according to cancer type, but cancer mortality did not differ significantly between migrants and Danish-born patients. This may imply that the Danish health-care system provides equity in cancer care.
The study was funded by the University of Copenhagen and Danielsens Fond.
The use of routine imaging for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in complete remission (CR) is controversial. In a population-based study, we examined the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish HL patients for whom follow-up practices were different. Follow-up in Denmark included routine imaging, usually for a minimum of 2 years, whereas clinical follow-up without routine imaging was standard in Sweden. A total of 317 Danish and 454 Swedish comparable HL patients aged 18-65 years, diagnosed in the period 2007-2012 and having achieved CR following ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine)/BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) therapy, were included in the study. The cumulative progression rates in the first 2 years were 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-7) for patients with stage I-II disease vs. 12% (95% CI 6-18) for patients with stage III-IV disease. An imaging-based follow-up practice was not associated with a better post-remission survival in general (P = 0·2) or in stage-specific subgroups (P = 0·5 for I-II and P = 0·4 for III-IV). Age =45 years was the only independent adverse prognostic factor for survival. In conclusion, relapse of HL patients with CR is infrequent and systematic use of routine imaging in these patients does not improve post-remission survival. The present study supports clinical follow-up without routine imaging, as encouraged by the recent Lugano classification.
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (PET/CT) is the current state-of-the-art in the staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and has a high sensitivity for extranodal involvement. Therefore, reassessment of extranodal involvement and the current prognostic indices in the PET/CT era is warranted. We screened patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL seen at the academic centers of Aalborg, Copenhagen, and British Columbia for eligibility. Patients that had been staged with PET/CT and treated with R-CHOP(-like) 1(st) line treatment were retrospectively included. In total 443 patients met the inclusion criteria. With a median follow-up of 2.4 years, the 3-year overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 73% and 69%, respectively. The Ann Arbor classification had no prognostic impact in itself with the exception of stage IV disease (HR 2.14 for PFS, P2 extranodal sites, including HR 7.81 (P?3 sites. Bone/bone marrow involvement was the most commonly involved extranodal site identified by PET/CT (29%) and was associated with an inferior PFS and OS. The IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI were predictive of PFS and OS, and the two latter could identify a very good prognostic subgroup with 3-year PFS and OS of 100%. PET/CT-ascertained extranodal involvement in DLBCL is common and involvement of >2 extranodal sites is associated with a dismal outcome. The IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI predict outcome with high accuracy.
Routine imaging for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in first complete remission (CR) is controversial and plays a limited role in detecting relapse. This population-based study compared the survival of Danish and Swedish patients with DLBCL for whom traditions for routine imaging have been different.
Patients from the Danish and Swedish lymphoma registries were included according to the following criteria: newly diagnosed DLBCL from 2007 to 2012, age 18 to 65 years, and CR after R-CHOP/CHOEP. Follow-up for Swedish patients included symptom assessment, clinical examinations, and blood tests at 3- to 4-month intervals for 2 years, with longer intervals later in follow-up. Imaging was only recommended when relapse was clinically suspected. Follow-up for Danish patients was similar but included routine imaging (usually computed tomography every 6 months for 2 years).
Danish (n = 525) and Swedish (n = 696) patients with DLBCL had comparable baseline characteristics. Cumulative 2-year progression rate after CR was 6% (95% CI, 4 to 9) for International Prognostic Index (IPI) = 2 versus 21% (95% CI, 13 to 28) for IPI > 2. Age > 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.4), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.8), B symptoms (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status = 2 (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.0) were associated with worse post-CR survival. Imaging-based follow-up strategy had no impact on survival, neither for all patients nor for IPI-specific subgroups.
DLBCL relapse after first CR is infrequent, and the widespread use of routine imaging in Denmark did not translate into better survival. This favors follow-up without routine imaging and, more generally, a shift of focus from relapse detection to improved survivorship.
Comment In: J Clin Oncol. 2015 Dec 1;33(34):3983-426438116