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Co-offending and the diversification of crime types.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134990
Source
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2012 Aug;56(5):811-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Martin A Andresen
Marcus Felson
Author Affiliation
School of Criminology, Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. andresen@sfu.ca
Source
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2012 Aug;56(5):811-29
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
British Columbia
Causality
Child
Crime - classification - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Prisoners - legislation & jurisprudence
Recurrence
Risk factors
Social Facilitation
Social Identification
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
There is theoretical and empirical support for co-offending being important not only for understanding current offending but also subsequent offending. The fundamental question is--why? In this article, an aggregate analysis is performed that begins to answer this question. Disaggregating solo- and co-offending by single year of age (12-29 years) and crime type in a largely metropolitan data set from British Columbia, Canada, 2002 to 2006, it is shown that the distribution of co-offences is significantly more varied than the distribution of solo offences. This more varied distribution of co-offences favors property crimes during youth but fades as offenders age.
PubMed ID
21518703 View in PubMed
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A cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of Vancouver's supervised injection facility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151117
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2010 Jan;21(1):70-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Martin A Andresen
Neil Boyd
Author Affiliation
School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. andresen@sfu.ca
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2010 Jan;21(1):70-6
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Communicable Disease Control - economics - methods
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Drug Overdose - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
HIV Infections - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Models, Theoretical
Needle-Exchange Programs - economics - statistics & numerical data
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Urban Population
Abstract
A supervised injection facility (SIF) has been established in North America: Insite, in Vancouver, British Columbia. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of this SIF using secondary data gathered and analysed in 2008. In using these data we seek to determine whether the facility's prevention of infections and deaths among injecting drug users (IDUs) is of greater or lesser economic cost than the cost involved in providing this service - Insite - to this community.
Mathematical modelling is used to estimate the number of new HIV infections and deaths prevented each year. We use the number of these new HIV infections and deaths prevented, in conjunction with estimated lifetime public health care costs of a new HIV infection, and the value of a life, in order to calculate an identifiable portion of the societal benefits of Insite. The annual costs of operating the SIF are used to measure the social costs of Insite. In using this information, we calculate cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios for the SIF.
Through the use of conservative estimates, Vancouver's SIF, Insite, on average, prevents 35 new cases of HIV and almost 3 deaths each year. This provides a societal benefit in excess of $6 million per year after the programme costs are taken into account, translating into an average benefit-cost ratio of 5.12:1.
Vancouver's SIF appears to be an effective and efficient use of public health care resources, based on a modelling study of only two specific and measurable benefits-HIV infection and overdose death.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Drug Policy. 2011 May;22(3):179-8321450450
PubMed ID
19423324 View in PubMed
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International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125946
Source
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2013 May;57(5):632-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Martin A Andresen
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. andresen@sfu.ca
Source
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2013 May;57(5):632-57
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Income
Male
Models, Statistical
Abstract
The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.
PubMed ID
22436732 View in PubMed
Less detail