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Adaptation to the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly: a prospective longitudinal study of maternal well-being and psychological distress.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259696
Source
Dev Psychol. 2014 Jun;50(6):1827-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Ragnhild B Nes
Espen Røysamb
Lars J Hauge
Tom Kornstad
Markus A Landolt
Lorentz M Irgens
Leif Eskedal
Petter Kristensen
Margarete E Vollrath
Source
Dev Psychol. 2014 Jun;50(6):1827-39
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Checklist
Child, Preschool
Cleft Lip - psychology
Cohort Studies
Down Syndrome - psychology
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Models, Statistical
Mother-Child Relations
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Personal Satisfaction
Pregnancy
Stress, Psychological - physiopathology
Abstract
This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress.
PubMed ID
24588521 View in PubMed
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Emotional reactivity in infants with congenital heart defects and maternal symptoms of postnatal depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130246
Source
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011 Dec;14(6):487-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Øivind Solberg
Maria T Grønning Dale
Henrik Holmstrøm
Leif T Eskedal
Markus A Landolt
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behaviour, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, Box 4404, 0403, Oslo, Norway. oivind.solberg@fhi.no
Source
Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011 Dec;14(6):487-92
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - psychology
Depression, Postpartum - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - psychology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Behavior - psychology
Mental health
Mother-Child Relations
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Object Attachment
Postpartum Period - psychology
Severity of Illness Index
Young Adult
Abstract
The object of this study was to examine the role of emotional reactivity in infants with congenital heart defects (CHD) in relation to their mothers' symptoms of postnatal depression. The study population was drawn from the Norwegian country-wide CHD registry from the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at Oslo University Hospital and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Mother-infant dyads with mild/moderate or severe CHD (n=242) were assessed with a 6-item short version (EPDS-6) of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Infant Characteristic Questionnaire's fussy/difficult subscale (ICQ-D/F-7) at 6 months postpartum. When adjusting for infant emotional reactivity, mothers of infants with severe CHD showed significantly elevated symptoms of postnatal depression 6 months postpartum (odds ratio=2.22) compared to the mothers of infants with mild/moderate CHD. The results identify severe CHD in infants as a predictor of heightened symptoms of postnatal depression in mothers, independent of the infant's emotional reactivity. Although a causal direction underlying the association could not be determined, the possible, negative reciprocal relationships between severe CHD in infants, high levels of emotional reactivity in infants, and symptoms of maternal postnatal depression are considered.
PubMed ID
22020995 View in PubMed
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Employment trends during preschool years among mothers of term singletons born with low birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268582
Source
Matern Child Health J. 2014 Nov;18(9):2195-201
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Lars Johan Hauge
Tom Kornstad
Ragnhild Bang Nes
Petter Kristensen
Lorentz M Irgens
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Margarete E Vollrath
Source
Matern Child Health J. 2014 Nov;18(9):2195-201
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Care - economics - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Disabled Children
Employment - economics - trends
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Low Birth Weight - physiology
Infant, Newborn
Male
Medical Record Linkage
Mother-Child Relations
Mothers - statistics & numerical data
Norway
Registries
Women, Working - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Children born at term with low birth weight (LBW) are regarded growth restricted and are at particular risk of adverse health outcomes requiring a high degree of parental participation in the day-to-day care. This study examined whether their increased risk of special health care needs compared to other children may influence mothers' opportunities for participation in the labor market at different times after delivery. Data from 32,938 participants in the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with singleton children born at term in 2004-2006 were linked to national registers in order to investigate the mothers' employment status when their children were 1-3 years in 2007 and 4-6 years in 2010. Children weighing less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean were defined as LBW children. Although not significantly different from mothers of children in the normal weight range, mothers of LBW children had the overall highest level of non-employment when the children were 1-3 years. At child age 4-6 years on the other hand, LBW was associated with an increased risk of non-employment (RR 1.39: 95 % CI 1.11-1.75) also after adjustment for factors associated with employment in general. In accordance with employment trends in the general population, our findings show that while mothers of normal birth weight children re-enter the labor market as their children grow older, mothers of LBW children born at term participate to a lesser extent in paid employment and remain at levels similar to those of mothers with younger children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24643811 View in PubMed
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The impact of a child's special health care needs on maternal work participation during early motherhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113016
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;27(4):353-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Lars Johan Hauge
Tom Kornstad
Ragnhild Bang Nes
Petter Kristensen
Lorentz M Irgens
Leif T Eskedal
Markus A Landolt
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo. laha@fhi.no
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;27(4):353-60
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child Care - economics - psychology
Child Rearing - psychology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Disabled Children - psychology
Employment - economics - psychology
Female
Humans
Infant
Mother-Child Relations - psychology
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Socioeconomic Factors
Women, Working - psychology
Abstract
Many women temporarily reduce work hours or stop working when caring for small children. However, mothers of children with special health care needs may face particular challenges balancing childrearing responsibilities and employment demands. This study examines how the work participation among mothers of children with special health care needs compares with that of mothers in general during early motherhood, focusing in particular on the extent of the child's additional health care needs.
By linkage of the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with national registers on employment, child health care needs, and social background factors, 41,255 mothers employed prior to childbirth were followed until child age 3 years to investigate associations between the child's care needs and mother's dropping out of employment.
In total, 16.3% of the formerly employed mothers were no longer employed at child age 3 years. Mothers of children with mild care needs did not differ from mothers in general, whereas mothers of children with moderate [Risk Ratio (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 1.80] and severe care needs [RR 2.19; 95% CI 1.67, 2.87] were at substantial risk of not being employed at follow-up. The impact of the child's health care needs remained strong also after adjusting for several factors associated with employment in general.
Extensive childhood health care needs are associated with reduced short-term employment prospects and remain a substantial influence on mothers' work participation during early motherhood, irrespective of other important characteristics associated with maternal employment.
PubMed ID
23772937 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal findings from a Norwegian case-cohort study on internalizing problems in children with congenital heart defects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140664
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2011 Feb;100(2):236-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Kim Stene-Larsen
Ragnhild Eek Brandlistuen
Henrik Holmstrøm
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Bo Engdahl
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. kim.stene-larsen@fhi.no
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2011 Feb;100(2):236-41
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anxiety - etiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - complications - psychology
Humans
Infant
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mothers
Norway
Severity of Illness Index
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Abstract
To examine the association of the severity of congenital heart defects (CHDs) with internalizing problems in 18-month-olds and to explore the extent to which the internalizing problems are influenced by maternal distress and emotional reactivity in the child at age 6 months.
We linked prospective data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, with a nationwide CHD registry and identified 198 18-month-olds with CHDs in a cohort of 47 692 toddlers. Maternal reports on the children's emotional reactivity at age 6 months, the children's internalizing problems (anxiety, sleep problems, emotional reactivity) at age 18 months and maternal distress were assessed by questionnaires.
We found an association at age 18 months between the severity of the CHD and anxiety but not sleep problems or emotional reactivity. Children with severe but not with mild or moderate CHDs were twice as likely to experience the symptoms of anxiety compared with controls. These symptoms are not merely sequelae of earlier psychological reactions or concurrent maternal distress.
Should these findings be replicated, future studies ought to investigate the mechanisms leading to elevated anxiety in toddlers with CHDs. In addition, clinical interventions should address the child's anxiety as well as the interaction between the parents and the child.
PubMed ID
20854393 View in PubMed
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Maternal Sick Leave Due to Psychiatric Disorders Following the Birth of a Child With Special Health Care Needs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271004
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 2015 Sep;40(8):804-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Lars Johan Hauge
Ragnhild Bang Nes
Tom Kornstad
Petter Kristensen
Lorentz M Irgens
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Margarete E Vollrath
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 2015 Sep;40(8):804-13
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Caregivers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Disabled Children - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Employment
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Child-related stress following the birth of a child with special health care needs (SHCN) can take a toll on parental health. This study examined how the risk of sick leave due to psychiatric disorders (PD) among mothers of children with SHCN compares with that of mothers of children without SHCN during early motherhood.
Responses from 58,532 mothers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were linked to national registries and monitored for physician-certified sick leave from the month of their child's first birthday until the month of their child's fourth birthday.
As compared with mothers of children without SHCN, mothers of children with mild and moderate/severe care needs were at substantial risk of a long-term sick leave due to PD in general and due to depression more specifically.
Extensive childhood care needs are strongly associated with impaired mental health in maternal caregivers during early motherhood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25911588 View in PubMed
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Mothers of infants with congenital heart defects: well-being from pregnancy through the child's first six months.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134763
Source
Qual Life Res. 2012 Feb;21(1):115-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Maria T Grønning Dale
Oivind Solberg
Henrik Holmstrøm
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Post Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. MariaTeresaGronning.Dale@fhi.no
Source
Qual Life Res. 2012 Feb;21(1):115-22
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital
Humans
Infant
Male
Mother-Child Relations
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Personal Satisfaction
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
This study compared the well-being among mothers of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) with mothers of children without CHD (controls), at pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum.
We linked prospective data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, with a nationwide medical CHD registry. In the MoBa cohort of 61,456 mothers, we identified 212 mothers of infants with mild (n = 92), moderate (n = 50), or severe CHD (n = 70). Subjective well-being was operationalized by means of maternal life satisfaction, joy, and anger at the 30th week of gestation and at 6 months postpartum.
Subjective well-being in mothers of children with CHD remained unchanged and similar to that of controls on satisfaction with life (P = 0.120) and feelings of joy (P = 0.065). However, at child age 6 months, mothers of infants with severe CHD reported slightly elevated feelings of anger compared with controls (P = 0.006).
Joy and life satisfaction remained intact among mothers of children with CHD. Yet, elevated feelings of anger in mothers of children with the most severe CHD suggest that they may experience more frustration.
PubMed ID
21544659 View in PubMed
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Motor and social development in 6-month-old children with congenital heart defects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98790
Source
J Pediatr. 2010 Feb;156(2):265-9.e1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Ragnhild Eek Brandlistuen
Kim Stene-Larsen
Henrik Holmstrom
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Post Box 4404,Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. ragnhild.eek.brandlistuen@fhi.no
Source
J Pediatr. 2010 Feb;156(2):265-9.e1
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Comorbidity
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Likelihood Functions
Logistic Models
Male
Motor Skills Disorders - epidemiology
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Social Adjustment
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the development of children with varying severity of congenital heart defect (CHD) differs from that of children without CHD at age 6 months. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 236 children with CHD were compared with 61 032 children from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diagnostic and treatment information was retrieved from a nationwide CHD registry. Four groups of CHD were distinguished: mild (n = 92), moderate (n = 50), severe (n = 70), and CHD with comorbidity (n = 24). At child age 6 months, the children's mothers reported on motor and social development by using the Mother and Child Questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders (ie, birth weight), severe CHD increased the odds of gross motor impairment (odds ratio [OR], 3.78; 95% CI, 1.97-7.25) and fine motor impairment (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.96-4.33). CHD with co-morbidity (eg, intestinal malformations) increased the odds of gross motor impairment (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 0.95-9.51), fine motor impairment (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 2.03-14.74), and social impairment (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.40-8.41). CONCLUSION: Increased odds of motor impairment are present already in infancy in severe CHD and CHD with comorbidity. CHD with comorbidity increases the odds of social impairment.
PubMed ID
19880142 View in PubMed
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Occurrence and predictors of developmental impairments in 3-year-old children with congenital heart defects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133542
Source
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011 Sep;32(7):526-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Ragnhild Eek Brandlistuen
Kim Stene-Larsen
Henrik Holmstrøm
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. ragnhild.eek.brandlistuen@fhi.no
Source
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011 Sep;32(7):526-32
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - epidemiology
Humans
Language Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Motor Skills Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Social Behavior
Abstract
To examine the occurrence of developmental impairments in 3-year-old children with varying severity of congenital heart defects (CHD) and to identify predictors associated with developmental impairment in children with severe CHD.
Prospective data collected at birth, 6, 18, and 36 months from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, were linked with a nationwide medical CHD registry, and 175 three year olds with CHD in a cohort of 44,044 children were identified. Children with mild/moderate (n = 115) and severe (n = 60) CHD were compared with children without CHD (43,929) on motor, communication, and social impairments as reported by mothers in Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study questionnaires. Predictors of developmental impairment were analyzed for the group with severe CHD.
Children with severe CHD had >3 times higher odds of communication and gross motor impairments compared with controls, and had 2 times higher odds of any developmental impairment compared with controls. Children with mild and moderate CHD had >2 times higher odds of gross motor impairment but did not otherwise differ from controls. Predictors of impairment identified were previous developmental impairments and smaller head circumference at birth.
Children with severe CHD have increased odds of developmental impairments at age 3 years. Early developmental impairments are associated with later developmental impairments, suggesting lasting impairments and not merely temporary delay. Patient-specific conditions at birth should be considered and motor and communication support provided to potentially improve outcomes in children with CHD.
PubMed ID
21694631 View in PubMed
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Relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with congenital heart defects: a prospective case-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112845
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 2013 Sep;38(8):915-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Maria T G Dale
Oivind Solberg
Henrik Holmstrøm
Markus A Landolt
Leif T Eskedal
Margarete E Vollrath
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. MariaTeresaGronning.Dale@fhi.no
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 2013 Sep;38(8):915-26
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child, Preschool
Female
Heart Defects, Congenital - psychology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Personal Satisfaction
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Sexual Partners - psychology
Abstract
To assess the level of partner relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with different severity of congenital heart defects (CHD) compared with mothers in the cohort.
Mothers of children with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 182) and a cohort of mothers of children without CHD (n = 46,782) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed at 5 time points from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. A 5-item version of the Relationship Satisfaction scale was used, and relevant covariates were explored.
The trajectories of relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with varying CHD severity did not differ from the trajectories in the cohort. All women in the cohort experienced decreasing relationship satisfaction from 18 months after delivery up to 36 months after delivery.
Having a child with CHD, regardless of severity, does not appear to exacerbate the decline in relationship satisfaction.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23792348 View in PubMed
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