In Finland, testing cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is popular in health promotion programs and work ability evaluations. The most common instruments used for this purpose are the submaximal cycle ergometer test, and the 2-km walking test. However, limited data exist on the associations between VO2max and wellbeing in working age adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate how the measured (cycle ergometer) and the estimated (walking test) VO2max and walking performance are associated with health-related quality of life and work ability.
The subjects were 104 middle-aged men workers (45-55 years old), mostly from the construction and manufacturing industries. VO2max was directly measured by a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The 2-km walking test parameters were the walking time, predicted VO2max, and fitness index. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the RAND-36 questionnaire which was further divided into physical dimensions (P-RAND-36) and mental dimensions (M-RAND-36). Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) in a subgroup of 51 subjects.
The 2-km walking test parameters significantly predicted the score on P-RAND-36 (r2=0.18, p=0.001), and correlated significantly with WAI. The directly measured VO2max was not associated with P-RAND-36, M-RAND-36 or WAI.
The inexpensive 2-km walking test may be more useful when evaluating the quality of life and work ability, compared to the more expensive direct measurement of one's cardiorespiratory fitness in a laboratory.
This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA).
The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis.
Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition.
BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.
Very few studies have evaluated both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and their effects on bone mass in children.
We studied the associations of serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH (iPTH) with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at different bone sites and the relation between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls.
The subjects were 10-12-y-old girls (n = 193) at Tanner stage 1 or 2, who reported a mean (+/- SD) dietary calcium intake of 733 +/- 288 mg/d. 25(OH)D, iPTH, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b), urinary calcium excretion, BMC, areal BMD, and volumetric BMD were assessed by using different methods.
Thirty-two percent of the girls were vitamin D deficient [serum 25(OH)D
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 µg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.
During growth bone increases in length and width as does the body size. The aim of this paper was to examine the growth pattern of body height and weight, and the width and length of various body segments, and to establish the timing of peak growth velocity (PV) in relation to time of menarche in a cohort of Finnish girls followed from age 10 until 18. The study was a 7-year longitudinal cohort study. Widths and lengths of body segments and bones were measured from DXA scan images using bone landmarks in 396 girls aged 10 to 13 years at baseline, and in 255 mothers and 159 grandmothers. The girls' growth velocities (rate of change with time) peaked at 13.5 months prior to menarche for height, 14.4 months for weight, and 15.4 months for BMI. Shoulder width peaked at 18.2 months, lesser pelvis width at 13.5 months and greater pelvis width at 11.6 months prior to menarche. The PV of various body segment lengths showed that the femur peaked earliest at 20.7 months prior to menarche, followed by the humerus (at 18.0 months), radius (at 17.4 months), tibia (at 17.5 months), and trunk (at 11.8 months), respectively. All the long bones were linearly correlated with height while the flat and irregular bones had a nonlinear growth relationship with height (r(2)=0.73-0.88). By the age of 18 years the girls had reached their mothers' height (101%) and humerus, radius, femur and tibia lengths (100-101%), but not their mothers' shoulder, great pelvis and lesser pelvis widths (98%, 95% and 93%, respectively). Our data confirmed that, after bone elongation had ceased, segment width continued to increase, although at a slower speed, into early adulthood. The wide variations in growth velocity of these anthropomorphic measurements underscore the need to optimize nutrition and physical activity from early puberty onward in order to maximize bone development.
This study was undertaken to examine bone properties in masters sprinters of different ages and younger reference subjects. In addition, the association of sport-specific ground reaction force, muscle, training, and hormone characteristics with the bone parameters was evaluated in the athletes.
Bone densitometric, structural, and strength parameters were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal and midtibia in 83 male sprinters (40-85 yr) and 19 physically active referents (31-45 yr). Between-group differences were analyzed by ANCOVA with body mass and height as covariates.
Bone values were generally greater in athletes than referents, the greatest differences being in bending strength of the tibia shaft as estimated by maximum moment of inertia (Imax). Among athletes, trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of distal tibia was 12% (P
Regular year-round exercise is recommended for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the combined effects of cold and moderate sustained exercise, both known to increase cardiac workload, on cardiovascular responses are not known. We tested the hypothesis that cardiac workload is increased, and evidence of ischemia would be observed during exercise in the cold in patients with CAD. Sixteen men (59.3?±?7.0 yr, means?±?SD) with stable CAD each underwent 4, 30 min exposures in a randomized order: seated rest and moderate-intensity exercise [walking, 60%-70% of max heart rate (HR)] performed at +22°C and -15°C. Systolic brachial blood pressure (SBP), HR, electrocardiogram (ECG), and skin temperatures were recorded throughout the intervention. Rate pressure product (RPP) and ECG parameters were obtained. The combined effects of cold and submaximal exercise were additive for SBP and RPP and synergistic for HR when compared with rest in a neutral environment. RPP (mmHg·beats/min) was 17% higher during exercise in the cold (18,080?± 3540) compared with neutral (15,490?±?2,940) conditions ( P = 0.001). Only a few ST depressions were detected during exercise but without an effect of ambient temperature. The corrected QT interval increased while exercising in the cold compared with neutral temperature ( P = 0.023). Recovery of postexercise blood pressure was similar regardless of temperature. Whole body exposure to cold during submaximal exercise results in higher cardiac workload compared with a neutral environment. Despite the higher RPP, no signs of myocardial ischemia or abnormal ECG responses were observed. The results of this study are useful for planning year-round exercise-based rehabilitation programs for stable CAD patients.
High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.
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School of Kinesiology (X.W., R.W., Y.L., P.C., S.C.), Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China; Department of Health Sciences (X.W., S.P., P.W., S.M.C., X.T., Y.L., S.C.), University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä, Finland; National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Services (G.F.), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China; Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care (J.G.E.), Helsinki University, and Unit of General Practice (J.G.E.), Helsinki University Central Hospital, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland; Folkhälsan Research Centre (J.G.E.), FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medical Rehabilitation (P.W., S.M.C., M.A.), Oulu University Hospital, FIN-90221, Oulu, Finland; and Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland.
Knowledge about the interrelationship between adiposity and systemic low-grade inflammation during pubertal growth is important in detecting early signs of obesity-related metabolic disorders.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the developmental trajectories of fat mass (FM) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and factors that could explain the relationship between FM and hsCRP in girls from prepuberty to early adulthood.
This was a 7.5-year longitudinal study.
The study was conducted at the University of Jyväskylä Sports and Health Science laboratory.
Three hundred ninety-six healthy Finnish girls aged 11.2 ± 0.8 years participated in the study.
Body composition was assessed by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum concentrations of hsCRP, adipokines, and sex hormones by ELISA.
Both FM and hsCRP increased with age and had similar trajectories but different inter- and intravariance patterns. A joint analysis of fat distribution and hsCRP indicated that the linkage probabilities across different trajectory subgroups between regional FM and the corresponding hsCRP levels varied from 16% to 53%. In a longitudinal regression model, the common predictor for both FM and hsCRP was T (ß = .065, P
Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI = 25 kg/m²) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.
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