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Diversification in indigenous and ethnic food culture.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176242
Source
Forum Nutr. 2005;(57):52-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Mark L Wahlqvist
Author Affiliation
President, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and Director, Asia Pacific Health & Nutrition Centre, Monash Asia Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
Source
Forum Nutr. 2005;(57):52-61
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Biodiversity
Diet - trends
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Supply
Humans
Urbanization
Abstract
A diversified food supply is contingent on underlying biodiversity in the locality where one lives or at a distance from it, if trade routes are established. Indigenous people generally settled at the water's edge so that aquatic foods made up part of their diversified diet, with the rest of the diversity dependent on how much they hunted and gathered, on herded animals, engagement in subsistence agriculture, the ability to process and preserve food and/or food commodities traded. The rapid urbanization of much of the world's population distances people from the origin of their food, the understanding of the required commodities in the human diet (e.g., aquatic food, plant foods, lean animal foods, what animals are fed, basics of freshness). At the same time, adequacy of food intake may be more reliably achieved when the food supply can continue irrespective of season, climate or distant conflict. Urban gardens partly rectify this discord between urbanization and a genuinely varied diet, replaced by purported variety where the same basic commodity is presented in many different forms (e.g., wheat grains such as bread, breakfast cereal of various kinds, pasta and baked goods). However, diversified processing may 'dilute out' health adverse techniques. The health benefits of a diversified diet relate in part to the environmental integrity, which the required biodiversity provides, in part to minimizing adverse factors, which may exceed acceptable thresholds in a narrow diet, and to the need for the wide spectrum of food components, macronutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals, which Homo sapiens' physiology requires. Whilst most food diversity is attributable to plant sources, animal sources often provide significant nutritional security (e.g., fish and eggs for vitamin D, fish for n-3 fatty acids, lean meat for iron and zinc and in readily assimilable forms). Food diversity assumes greater importance with aging populations as their physical activity usually (if not necessarily) declines and the required food component diversity of the diet increases correspondingly. There are ways in which the required food diversity (probably 20-30 biologically different distinct foods over the course of a week) can be reduced. This is by the inclusion of more food component dense foods--like fish, lean meat, eggs, seeds and nuts. Not only does food diversity have relevance in a public health and food policy sense, but also in individual counseling in clinical practice. Assessment of a patient's food variety can be rapid and semi-quantitative, encouraging small and consequential changes in diet. When ethnicity is taken into account, in the clinical setting, this process can be even more rewarding for the practitioner and patient.
PubMed ID
15702588 View in PubMed
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Does diet matter for survival in long-lived cultures?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49627
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(1):2-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Mark L Wahlqvist
Irene Darmadi-Blackberry
Antigone Kouris-Blazos
Damien Jolley
Bertil Steen
Widjaja Lukito
Yoshimitsu Horie
Author Affiliation
Asia Pacific Health and Nutrition Centre, Monash Asia Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(1):2-6
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Age Factors
Aged
Australia - ethnology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Diet - mortality - statistics & numerical data
Diet, Mediterranean - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Habits
Greece - ethnology
Humans
Japan - ethnology
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Sweden - ethnology
Time Factors
Abstract
In 1987, the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) subcommittee on Nutrition and Ageing, in conjunction with the World Health Organization (WHO) global program for the elderly, embarked on the 'Food Habits in Later Life' (FHILL): a cross-cultural study to determine to what extent health, social and lifestyle variables, especially food intake, collectively predict survival amongst long-lived cultures. A total of 818 participants aged 70 years and over were recruited from five IUNS centres. Mortality data were collected after five to seven years. The cohorts included Swedes in Sweden (SWD), Greeks in Greece (GRS) and in Melbourne, Australia (GRM), Anglo-Celts in Australia (ACS) and Japanese in Japan (JPN). Information was obtained on health, lifestyle and diet at baseline. A Cox Proportional Hazard model containing ten potential predictors of survival, adjusted to age at enrollment and ethnicity/locality, was developed to analyse the survival data. Based on up to seven years survival data, it was found that being an elderly Greek in Australia conferred the lowest mortality risk and being an elderly Greek in Greece conferred the highest mortality risk. When the ten potential predictors of survival were entered into the Cox model, the memory score, the Mediterranean diet score, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and general health status scores showed the greatest effects in significantly reducing mortality hazard ratios by 22%, 13%, 4% and 4%, respectively. For diet score, a one-unit change predicted a significant 13% difference in survival. Of the lifestyle (modifiable) variables entered in the multivariate model, exercise and social activity were not significant predictors of survival suggesting that diet is a more important predictor of survival than these variables. Another lifestyle variable, smoking, significantly increased mortality hazard ratios by 67%, making it a more important predictor of survival than diet. Being male (non-modifiable) also increased risk of death by 63%. Diet, particularly the Mediterranean Diet, operates irrespective and together with other factors as an appreciable contributor to survival, with a strength comparable to or greater than all other measured variables. The independence and strength of the predictiveness of food pattern for survival, and for this to be cross-cultural from Europe to Asia is a novel and important observation for food and health policy.
PubMed ID
15734702 View in PubMed
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Legumes: the most important dietary predictor of survival in older people of different ethnicities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51984
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(2):217-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Irene Darmadi-Blackberry
Mark L Wahlqvist
Antigone Kouris-Blazos
Bertil Steen
Widjaja Lukito
Yoshimitsu Horie
Kazuyo Horie
Author Affiliation
Public Health Division, National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia. i.blackberry@nari.unimelb.edu.au
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(2):217-20
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Australia
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Diet
Ethnic Groups
Europe
Fabaceae
Female
Humans
Japan
Longevity
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Predictive value of tests
Survival Analysis
Abstract
To identify protective dietary predictors amongst long-lived elderly people (N= 785), the "Food Habits in Later Life "(FHILL) study was undertaken among five cohorts in Japan, Sweden, Greece and Australia. Between 1988 and 1991, baseline data on food intakes were collected. There were 785 participants aged 70 and over that were followed up to seven years. Based on an alternative Cox Proportional Hazard model adjusted to age at enrollment (in 5-year intervals), gender and smoking, the legume food group showed 7-8% reduction in mortality hazard ratio for every 20g increase in daily intake with or without controlling for ethnicity (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99 and RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.99, respectively). Other food groups were not found to be consistently significant in predicting survival amongst the FHILL cohorts.
PubMed ID
15228991 View in PubMed
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The opportunities and challenges of evidence-based nutrition (EBN) in the Asia Pacific region: clinical practice and policy-setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158133
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):2-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Mark L Wahlqvist
Meei-Shyuan Lee
Joseph Lau
Ken N Kuo
Ching-jang Huang
Wen-Harn Pan
Hsing-Yi Chang
Rosalind Chen
Yi-Chen Huang
Author Affiliation
Nutrition Consortium, Center for Health Policy Research Development, National Health Research Institutes, No. 35, Keyan Road, Zhunan, Taiwan. profmlw@nhri.org.tw
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):2-7
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Evidence-Based Medicine
Health Policy
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic - standards
Abstract
Evidence-based nutrition (EBN) has gained currency as part of the growing role of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to increase the validity, utility and cost-effectiveness of both clinical practice and, increasingly, public health endeavours. Nutritionally-related disorders and diseases (NRD) account for a relatively large proportion of the burden of ill-health, disease and mortality, especially as the nexus between them and both infectious disease and so-called chronic disease is understood. As resource allocation is increasingly dependent on the evidence for preventive or therapeutic effect, the case for nutrition interventions also needs to be underpinned by evidence. However, feeding studies are not as amenable to the designs familiar to clinical trialists and dietary interventions in public health may be complex in their conduct and interpretation, making other approaches like cohort studies more attractive even if costly and long in the execution. With a number of food system changes in rapid progress or imminent, especially in the populous Asia Pacific region, along with changing demographics, changing disease patterns and concern about present and future food security, a stock-take and scenario analysis of EBN was undertaken by a panel of nutrition scientists, population scientists, agriculturalists, clinicians and policy makers together with consumer and indigenous stake-holders in Taiwan in 2007. They found that clinical practice guidelines and proposals for health and nutrition policies required greater emphasis and expertise in EBN.
PubMed ID
18364319 View in PubMed
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Regional food culture and development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164404
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:2-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Mark L Wahlqvist
Meei-Shyuan Lee
Author Affiliation
Asia Pacific Health and Nutrition Centre, Monash Asia Institute, 8th Floor Menzies Buliding, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia. mark.wahlqvist@adm.monash.edu.au
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:2-7
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Commerce
Diet - economics - ethnology - standards
Food Habits - ethnology
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Nutritive Value
Abstract
Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure.
PubMed ID
17392068 View in PubMed
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