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Social inequalities in food exposure around schools in an urban area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142957
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Jul;39(1):33-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Yan Kestens
Mark Daniel
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine and Central Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. yan.kestens@umontreal.ca
Source
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Jul;39(1):33-40
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Fast Foods
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Fruit
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Income
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Restaurants - statistics & numerical data
Schools
Socioeconomic Factors
Students
Urban Population
Vegetables
Abstract
The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings.
This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density.
A GIS was used to derive measures of exposure to fast-food outlets, fruit and vegetable stores, and full-service restaurants near primary and secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, in 2005. Food source availability was analyzed in 2009 in relation to neighborhood income for the area around schools, accounting for commercial density.
For the 1168 schools identified, strong neighborhood income gradients were observed in relation to food sources. Relative to the highest income-quartile schools, the odds of a fast-food outlet being located within 750 m of a low income-quartile school was 30.9 (95% CI=19.6, 48.9). Similar relationships were observed for full-service restaurants (OR=77, 95% CI=35, 169.3) and fruit and vegetable stores (OR=29.6, 95% CI=18.8, 46.7). These associations were reduced, but remained significant in models accounting for commercial density.
Food source exposure around schools is inversely associated with neighborhood income, but commercial density partly accounts for this association. Further research is necessary to document food consumption among youth attending schools in relation to nearby food source opportunities.
PubMed ID
20537844 View in PubMed
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Perceptions of disease severity and barriers to self-care predict glycemic control in Aboriginal persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187099
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2002;23(4):130-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Mark Daniel
Lynne C Messer
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #7440, Rosenau Hall, Room 302, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7440, USA. danielm@email.unc.edu
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2002;23(4):130-8
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Canada
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - ethnology - prevention & control - psychology
Female
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Self Care - psychology
Abstract
The Health Belief Model (HBM) was evaluated for secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Aboriginal population in British Columbia. Glycemic markers (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]), insulin and post-load glucose), diabetes health beliefs (susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers), knowledge and behaviour were measured for 16 men and 18 women with diabetes (age [SD]=57.7 [11.6]). Eighteen months later, HbA1c and behaviour were measured for all participants, and health beliefs obtained for 17 of them. Perceived severity and perceived barriers were related to glycemic status at baseline and follow up, and predicted reduction in HbA1c (b[SE]
0.40
[0.18], p
PubMed ID
12517320 View in PubMed
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Source
Am J Public Health. 2007 Jan;97(1):8-9; author reply 9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Spencer Moore
Mark Daniel
Yan Kestens
Source
Am J Public Health. 2007 Jan;97(1):8-9; author reply 9
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Educational Status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
New York City - epidemiology
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics - classification - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Notes
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1989 Mar;18(1):269-742656561
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2005 Dec;95(12):2198-20516304132
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Jan 1;137(1):1-88434568
Comment On: Am J Public Health. 2005 Dec;95(12):2198-20516304132
PubMed ID
17138904 View in PubMed
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The adaptive nature of implementation practice: case study of a school-based nutrition education intervention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115493
Source
Eval Program Plann. 2013 Aug;39:10-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Sherri Bisset
Louise Potvin
Mark Daniel
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre de recherche Léa-Roback sur les inégalités sociales de santé de Montréal & IRSPUM, Université de Montréal Public Health Research Institute, Québec, Canada. Sherri.Bisset@criucpq.ulaval.ca
Source
Eval Program Plann. 2013 Aug;39:10-8
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cooking
Food Habits
Health Education - organization & administration
Health Plan Implementation - methods - organization & administration
Humans
Models, Psychological
Organizational Case Studies
Poverty
Psychology, Social
Quebec
Schools
Abstract
To describe how and why nutritionists implement and strategize particular program operations across school contexts.
Instrumental case study with empirical propositions from Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Data derived from interviews with interventionists and observations of their practices.
Seven primary schools from disadvantaged Montreal neighborhoods.
Six nutritionists implementing the nutrition intervention in grades 4 and 5. From 133 nutrition workshops held in 2005/06, 31 workshops were observed with audio-recordings.
Little Cooks--Parental Networks aims to promote healthy eating behaviors through engagement in food preparation and promotion of nutrition knowledge.
The program-context interface where interventionists' practices form interactively within a given social context.
Coding inspired by ANT. Interview analysis involved construction of collective implementation strategies. Observations and audio-recordings were used to qualify and quantify nutritionists' practices against variations in implementation.
Nutritionists privileged intervention strategies according to particularities of the setting. Some such variation was accounted for by school-level social conditions, individual preferences and nutritionists' past experiences.
Implementation practices are strategic and aim to engage educational actors to achieve intervention goals. These results challenge implementation frameworks centered on purely technical considerations that exclude the social and interpretive nature of practice.
PubMed ID
23501242 View in PubMed
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Rising disparities in severe adverse birth outcomes among Haitians in Québec, Canada, 1981-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135991
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2012 Apr;14(2):198-208
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Nathalie Auger
Martine Chery
Mark Daniel
Author Affiliation
Institut National de santé publique du Québec, 190, boulevard Crémazie Est, Montréal, QC, H2P 1E2, Canada. nathalie.auger@inspq.qc.ca
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2012 Apr;14(2):198-208
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Educational Status
Female
Fetal Development
Haiti - epidemiology
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - ethnology
Pregnancy Outcome - ethnology
Premature Birth - ethnology
Quebec - ethnology
Abstract
Perinatal health data for Haitians are scant. We evaluated adverse birth outcomes for Haitians in Québec, Canada. We analyzed 2,124,909 live births from 1981 to 2006. Haitian ethnicity was assessed using maternal birth country (Haiti, other Caribbean country, other foreign country, Canada) and home language (Creole, French/English but Creole mother tongue, French/English, other). Associations between ethnicity and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were calculated. Adverse birth outcomes were more common among mothers with Haitian ethnicity. Relative to Canadian-born mothers, odds for Haitian-born mothers were 4 times greater for extreme PTB (=27 weeks), twice greater for very PTB (28-31 weeks), and 25% higher for moderate PTB (32-36 weeks). Patterns were similar for SGA birth and severe cases of LBW. Despite overall decreases LBW and SGA birth, relative and absolute inequalities increased over time. Perinatal health inequalities are increasing for Haitian-born mothers.
PubMed ID
21424538 View in PubMed
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Association between neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics and high-risk injection behaviour amongst injection drug users living in inner and other city areas in Montréal, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152348
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2010 Jan;21(1):49-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Mélissa Généreux
Julie Bruneau
Mark Daniel
Author Affiliation
Community Medicine Residency Program, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2010 Jan;21(1):49-55
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Dangerous Behavior
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Needle Sharing - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - blood - psychology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Area-level socioeconomic conditions are associated with epidemic rates of viral hepatitis and HIV amongst urban injection drug users (IDUs), but whether specific socioeconomic markers are uniformly related to IDU outcomes across different urban environments is unclear. We evaluated whether injection behaviour is differentially related to neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics for IDUs in inner city vs. surrounding urban areas.
The study population was 468 active IDUs on the Island of Montréal. Neighbourhoods were represented as 500m radius buffers around individual IDU dwelling places. High-risk injection behaviour (HRIB) was defined dichotomously. Relations between neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage (percentage households below low-income cutoff), neighbourhood educational attainment (percentage adults with university degree), and HRIB were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Stratified analyses were conducted for inner city IDUs (n=219), and those in surrounding areas (n=249).
Similar proportions of IDUs in inner city and surrounding areas reported HRIB. Neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with HRIB for IDUs in surrounding areas. For inner city IDUs, those in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods were more likely to practice HRIB (OR 4.34; 95% CI 1.15-16.35). Conversely, inner city IDUs residing in lower educational attainment neighbourhoods had a lower odds of HRIB (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.80).
HRIB did not vary according to urban environment but for inner-city IDUs was differentially related to socioeconomic markers. Associations between HRIB and neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and lower educational attainment, positive and negative, respectively, indicate that adverse socioeconomic circumstances are not related to a uniformly greater likelihood of HRIB.
PubMed ID
19250813 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic disparities in low birth weight outcomes according to maternal birthplace in Quebec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153085
Source
Ethn Health. 2009 Feb;14(1):61-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2009
Author
Spencer Moore
Mark Daniel
Nathalie Auger
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. spencer.moore@umontreal.ca
Source
Ethn Health. 2009 Feb;14(1):61-74
Date
Feb-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Mothers - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - ethnology
Quebec - epidemiology
Social Class
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies in the USA suggest that the association between maternal birthplace, socioeconomic status (SES), and low birth weight (LBW) can vary across different immigrant groups. Less is known outside the USA about these associations. Our study assesses the association of maternal birthplace and SES on the likelihood of LBW infants in Québec, Canada.
Using 2000 Quebec birth registry data, logistic regression was used to examine differentials in LBW according to maternal birthplace and SES. Singleton infants born to Québec mothers (n=47,988) were grouped into nine regions based on maternal birthplace: (1) Canada; (2) the USA and western Europe; (3) eastern Europe; (4) Latin America; (5) the Caribbean; (6) Sub-Saharan Africa; (7) north Africa and Middle East; (8) South Asia; and (9) East Asia and Pacific. SES was classified into four categories according to maternal educational attainment: (1) low SES (
PubMed ID
19152159 View in PubMed
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The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149679
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:237
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Nathalie Auger
Julie Giraud
Mark Daniel
Author Affiliation
Unité Etudes et Analyses de l'Etat de Santé de la Population, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada. nathalie.auger@inspq.qc.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:237
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Educational Status
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Income
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Logistic Models
Male
Mothers
Odds Ratio
Population Density
Premature Birth - epidemiology
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Social Class
Young Adult
Abstract
The association between area characteristics and birth outcomes is modified by race. Whether such associations vary according to social class indicators beyond race has not been assessed.
This study evaluated effect modification by maternal birthplace and education of the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and birth outcomes of newborns from 1999-2003 in the province of Québec, Canada (N = 353,120 births). Areas (N = 143) were defined as administrative local health service delivery districts. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the association between three area characteristics (median household income, immigrant density and income inequality) and the two outcomes preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth. Effect modification by social class indicators was evaluated in analyses stratified according to maternal birthplace and education.
Relative to the lowest tertile, high median household income was associated with SGA birth among Canadian-born mothers (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.20) and mothers with high school education or less (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02, 1.24). Associations between median household income and PTB were weaker. Relative to the highest tertile, low immigrant density was associated with a lower odds of PTB among foreign-born mothers (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63, 1.00) but a higher odds of PTB among Canadian-born mothers (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07, 1.21). Associations with income inequality were weak or absent.
The association between area factors and birth outcomes is modified by maternal birthplace and education. Studies have found that race interacts in a similar manner. Public health policies focussed on perinatal health must consider the interaction between individual and area characteristics.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19602256 View in PubMed
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Demographic and urban form correlates of healthful and unhealthful food availability in Montréal, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150465
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):189-93
Publication Type
Article
Author
Mark Daniel
Yan Kestens
Catherine Paquet
Author Affiliation
Axe santé des populations, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC. mark.daniel@unisa.edu.au
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):189-93
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Family Characteristics
Food
Food Habits
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Fruit
Humans
Language
Middle Aged
Obesity - etiology
Quebec
Restaurants
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population
Vegetables
Young Adult
Abstract
This study sought to extend previous analyses of food insecurity in Montreal by examining the relationship between neighbourhood sociodemographic and urban form variables and sources of food both unhealthful (fast-food outlets, FFO) and healthful (stores selling fruits and vegetables, FVS).
Densities of FFO and FVS were computed for 862 Census tract areas (CTA) (defined as census tract with a 1-km buffer around its limits) for the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). Predictor variables included CTA socio-demographic characteristics reflecting income, household structure, language, and education, and urban form measures, specifically, densities of local roads, main roads, expressways and highways. Food source densities were regressed on CTA characteristics using stepwise regression.
Socio-demographic and urban form measures explained 60% and 73% of the variance in densities of FFO and FVS, respectively. FFO were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of full-time students and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportions of married individuals, children and older adults; and more high-traffic roads. FVS were more prevalent in CTA with higher proportions of single residents, university-educated residents and households speaking neither French nor English; lower proportion of French-speakers; and more local roads. Median household income was not related to the density of FFO or FVS.
The availability of healthful and unhealthful food varies across the Montréal CMA. Areas with lower education and more French-speaking households have a lesser availability of FVS. The association of FFO with high-traffic roadways and areas with high school attendance suggests a point for intervention via commercial zoning changes.
PubMed ID
19507720 View in PubMed
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Sex ratio patterns according to Asian ethnicity in Québec, 1981-2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153482
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(1):17-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Nathalie Auger
Mark Daniel
Spencer Moore
Author Affiliation
Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Unité Etudes et Analyses de l'Etat de Santé de la Population, 190, boulevard Crémazie Est, Montreal, QC H2P1E2, Canada. nathalie.auger@inspq.qc.ca
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(1):17-24
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Adult
Asia - ethnology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Pregnancy
Prejudice
Quebec
Retrospective Studies
Sex Preselection
Sex ratio
Young Adult
Abstract
Elevated ratios of male to female births are emerging in Asian countries due to selective abortion of female foetuses. Little research has evaluated the possibility of sex selection among Asians in the West. We evaluated patterns in the secondary sex ratio (SSR, number of male per 100 female births) according to ethnicity in Québec, Canada. We performed a population-based retrospective analysis of live and still births in urban Québec, 1981-2004 (N = 1,612,614 live births). Outcomes included: (1) first and second order SSR over four consecutive 6-year intervals analysed according to parental mother tongue, parental birth region, and mothers still speaking her mother tongue at home, (2) adjusted relative risk (RR) of female birth by parental ethnicity, and (3) estimated number of unborn females. For the period 1987-1992, first order SSRs were elevated (range 118-121) for Indo-Pakistani parental mother tongue and mothers currently speaking Indo-Pakistani at home. Second order SSRs were not elevated. For Indo-Pakistani mother tongues, the RR of female birth was lower than French/English in the same period (adjusted RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99). SSRs were not imbalanced in the late 1990s among Indo-Pakistani parents, or among Chinese ethnicity in any study period. The SSR in Québec was elevated in the 1980s and early 1990s among firstborn relative to subsequent born infants of Indo-Pakistani descent. The reason for this imbalance is unclear. Further research in other Western settings is necessary to evaluate the possibility of sex selection.
PubMed ID
19109759 View in PubMed
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51 records – page 1 of 6.