Evidence suggests that dietary supplementation of L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, may protect arteries against atherosclerosis.
We tested the hypothesis that dietary arginine intake is associated with a decreased risk of acute coronary events in Finnish men aged 42-60 y.
We investigated this association in a prospective cohort study of men who were free of prior coronary artery disease and who were examined in 1984-1989 in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD). The dietary arginine intake of 1981 men was assessed by a 4-d food intake record during the baseline phase of the KIHD.
Men in the highest quintile of dietary arginine intake (>or= 5691 mg/d) did not have a significantly lower risk of acute coronary events than did men in the 4 lower quintiles (relative risk after adjustment for potential coronary risk factors: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.94). The covariates were age; examination years; body mass index; systolic blood pressure; serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol; serum triacylglycerols; urinary excretion of nicotine metabolites; maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test; and alcohol intake. Splitting arginine intake into deciles or analyzing plant- and animal-derived arginine separately did not show any association between dietary arginine intake and the risk of acute coronary events. Arginine intake was also not consistently associated with blood pressure.
Dietary arginine intake is not associated with the risk of acute coronary events in middle-aged men in eastern Finland.
Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of a- and ß-carotene in a sample of young Finnish children from the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study. The current analysis comprised 3-day food records and serum samples from 207 children aged 1, 2 and 3 years. Spearman and partial correlations, as well as a cross-classification analyses, were used to assess the relationship between dietary intake and the corresponding biomarkers. Serum concentrations of a- and ß-carotene were significantly higher among the 1-year-old compared to the 3-year-old children. Dietary intakes of a- and ß-carotene correlated significantly with their respective serum concentrations in all age groups, the association being highest at the age of 1 year (a-carotene r = 0.48; p
This study presents data on the contribution of eating occasions to the daily intakes of energy and nutrients. The 48-h dietary data of Finnish adults were gathered from two independent, population-based health surveys undertaken in 2002 and 2007. Snack-dominated and main-meal dominated eating patterns were defined as the habit of obtaining the majority of daily energy from snacks or from main meals. The snack-dominated eating pattern increased in adults from 2002 to 2007, significantly in men. Mostly, similar changes in daily nutrient intakes were observed between study years within eating patterns. Higher alcohol intake in men and higher sucrose intake and lower fibre intake in women were associated with the snack-dominated eating pattern. Due to instability in the snack-dominated eating pattern we conclude that main meals and snacks seem to be parallel ways of composing daily diet with only a few dietary differences.
Phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins are polyphenols that may have beneficial effects on human health and provide protection against chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on quantitative intake of polyphenols. The aims of this study were to estimate the quantitative intakes of polyphenols by using analyzed concentrations together with individual food consumption records and to determine major dietary sources. Analyzed concentrations of phenolic acids, anthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and ellagitannins (44 total polyphenol compounds) were entered into the national food composition database, Fineli. The absolute intakes of the polyphenols and the corresponding food sources were calculated on the basis of 48-h dietary recalls of 2007 Finnish adults. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 863 +/- 415 mg/d. Phenolic acids comprised the dominant group of polyphenols (75% of total intake) followed by proanthocyanidins (14%) and anthocyanidins and other flavonoids (10%). Due to their high consumption and high concentrations of phenolic acids, coffee and cereals were the main contributors to total polyphenol intake. Berries and berry products were the main source for anthocyanidins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins, and fruits were the main source for flavonols, flavones, and flavanones. The results give additional support to the recommendations for a varied diet with fruits, berries, cereals, and vegetables.
A cross-sectional survey, FINDIET 2007, was carried out in Finland. Food intake data was collected by a 48 h recall interview. Additional food intake data was collected by a repeated 3 d food diary, a barcode-based product diary, a food frequency questionnaire and by a supplementary questionnaire on rarely eaten foods. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the methodology of the national dietary survey and to discuss the particular implications for the applications of food consumption data in risk assessment. The food consumption data of the FINDIET 2007 survey can be used in food risk assessment, due thanks to flexible data processing of individual food consumption, and a risk assessment point of view was taken into account. However, international standardisation projects are needed in order to estimate comparable food intakes.
To describe the diet of a population of pregnant Finnish women over a period of 7 years, with special attention paid to seasonal fluctuations in food consumption and nutrient intake.
A validated 181-item FFQ was applied retrospectively, after delivery, to assess the maternal diet during the 8th month of pregnancy.
Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study Cohort.
The cohort comprised a total of 4880 women who had newly delivered during the years 1997-2004, with the offspring carrying increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Over the study period, the proportion of energy derived from fat decreased while the intake from protein and carbohydrate increased. The intake of vitamin D increased from food sources. Seasonal variation was observed in the mean daily consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries and cereals. Intake of dietary fibre, total fat, MUFA, vitamins A, D, E and C, folate and iron also showed seasonal fluctuation.
These results show an overall positive trend in the diet of pregnant Finnish women through the study years. However, there is still room for improvement, particularly in the types of dietary fats. Although food fortification with vitamin D since 2003 was reflected in the increased intake of vitamin D from foods, the mean intake levels still fell below the recommendations. Seasonal changes in food consumption were observed and related to corresponding fluctuations in nutrient intakes. The mean folate intake fell below the recommendation throughout the year.
Recently, the general public opinion is that nutritional recommendations promote obesity rather than prevent it. We created the Recommended Finnish Diet Score (RFDS) that illustrates the Finnish nutrition recommendations and assessed whether this score is associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%).
Cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Height, weight, WC and BF% were measured, and BMI values were calculated. The RFDS was developed based on the national nutrition recommendations.
A large representative sample of the Finnish population.
Men (n 2190) and women (n 2530) aged 25-74 years.
The RFDS was inversely associated with WC in men (OR = 0·48, 95 % CI 0·28, 0·81, P
The aim of the study is to elucidate differences in adults' diet by education, and to analyse the associations between dietary facilitators, education and dietary fat quality.
In all, one-third of subjects from the national FINRISK health survey were invited to participate in the FINDIET 2007 Survey. A 48 h dietary interview was used for dietary data and personal background data were collected by the health survey questionnaire.
Representative sample from five regions in Finland in spring 2007.
A total of 1576 adults, participation rate 60 %.
Oil used in cooking differed by education. Instead perception of cardiovascular risk, or the following of a cholesterol-lowering diet, were equal across all educational categories. The diet of men with low education contained less protein and carbohydrates, more fat and more SFA and MUFA than that of highly educated men. The diet of women with low education contained less PUFA, vitamin C and vitamin E than in the highly educated category. High education remained a significant determinant for the lower intake of SFA in men, and for the higher intake of PUFA in women, after adjusting for the determinants and facilitators of dietary behaviour and age. The lower intake of SFA was also associated with following a cholesterol-lowering diet in both genders. In addition to education, the intake of unsaturated fatty acids was determined by the oil used in cooking by women, and by frequent lunches served by caterers for men.
In dietary behaviour, awareness and reporting of cholesterol-lowering diet seem to indicate a tendency to control the intake of saturated fat. Health messages are likely to enhance tools for increasing the intake of PUFA, in addition to reducing the intake of SFA.
Fatty acid concentrations in blood are potential biomarkers of dietary fat intake, but methodological studies among children are scarce. The large number of fatty acids and their complex interrelationships pose a special challenge in research on fatty acids. Our target was to assess the interrelationships between the total fatty acid profiles in diet and serum of young children. The study subjects were healthy control children from the birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. A 3-day food record and a frozen serum sample were available from 135 children at the age of 1 year, from 133 at 2 years, and from 92 at 3 years. The relationship between dietary and serum fatty acid profiles was analysed using canonical correlation analysis. The consumption of fatty milk correlated positively with serum fatty acids, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at all ages. Correlations between dietary and serum eicosapentaenoic and/or docosahexaenoic acid were observed at 2 and 3 years of age. Serum linoleic acid was positively associated with the consumption of infant formula at the age of 1 year, and with the consumption of vegetable margarine at 2 and 3 years. The results indicate a high quality of the 3-day food records kept by parents and other caretakers of the children, and suitability of non-fasting, un-fractioned serum samples for total fatty acid analyses. The correlation between intake of milk fat and serum proportion of CLA is a novel finding.
The objective was to develop a Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI), to determine the relative validity of the index and to examine associations between the index and familial sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in a population-based birth cohort study in Finland.
Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study cohort.
Three-day food records from 1-year-old (n 455), 3-year-old (n 471) and 6-year-old (n 713) children were completed between 2003 and 2005.
Validity of the FCHEI was assessed by studying the associations between the FCHEI and nutrient intakes of the children. Among all age groups, intakes of SFA and sugars decreased across increasing quartiles of the FCHEI while intakes of PUFA, dietary fibre, vitamin D and vitamin E increased. Among 3- and 6-year-olds, being cared for at home was associated with the lowest FCHEI quartile (diet that deviates most from the recommendations). The lowest FCHEI quartile was also associated with residence in a semi-urban area among the 3-year-olds and low maternal education and smoking during pregnancy among the 6-year-olds.
The FCHEI serves as a valid indicator of the quality of Finnish children's diet. Public health programmes aimed at improving the dietary behaviours of pre-school aged children should aim to improve the quality of food served at home. Families with history of lower parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy or non-urban place of residence may require special attention.