To explore health, use of health services, 'core' information and reasons for non-participation amongst males.
Gender may provide an explanation for non-participation in the healthcare system. A growing body of research suggests that males are less likely than females to seek help from health professionals for their problems. The current research had its beginnings with the low response rate in a prior voluntary survey and health examination for Finnish males born in 1961.
Data triangulation among 28 non-respondent middle-aged males in Helsinki was used.
The methods involved structured and in-depth interviews and health measurements to explore the views of these males concerning their health-related behaviours and use of health services.
Non-respondent males seldom used healthcare services. Despite clinical risk factors (e.g. obesity and blood pressure) and various symptoms, males perceived their health status as good. Work was widely experienced as excessively demanding, causing insomnia and other stress symptoms. Males expressed sensitive messages when a session was ending and when the participant was close to the door and leaving the room. This 'core' information included major causes of concern, anxiety, fears and loneliness.
This triangulation study showed that by using an in-depth interview as one research strategy, more sensitive 'feminist' expressions in health and ill-health were got by men. The results emphasise a male's self-perception of his masculinity that may have relevance to the health experience of the male population.
Nurses and physicians need to pay special attention to the requirements of gender-specific healthcare to be most effective in the delivery of healthcare to males.
There are few reports on mobility limitations in persons with psychotic disorder although restrictions in mobility may aggravate the general functional limitations of these patients. Our aim was to investigate mobility limitations among subjects with psychotic disorder in a general population-based sample.
A nationally representative sample of 6,927 persons aged 30 and older self-reported mobility limitations in an interview and was examined in performance tests. Diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV psychotic disorders combined SCID interview and case note data. Lifetime-ever diagnoses of psychotic disorder were classified into schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders and affective psychoses.
Self-reported mobility limitations were highly prevalent in persons with schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychosis, but not in the affective psychosis group. After adjusting for age and sex, persons with schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychoses but not affective psychoses had significantly increased odds of having both self-reported and test-based mobility limitations as well as weak muscle strength. Schizophrenia remained an independent predictor of mobility limitations even after controlling for lifestyle-related factors and chronic medical conditions. Among persons with nonaffective psychoses, higher levels of negative symptoms predicted mobility limitations.
Self-reported mobility limitations are prevalent already at a young age in persons with schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychotic disorders, and among older persons with these disorders both self-reported limitations and measured performance tests show lower capacity in mobility. Difficulties in mobility are associated with negative symptoms. Mental health care professionals should pay attention to mobility limitations in persons with psychotic disorder.
To examine how school-based smoking policies and prevention programs are associated with occasional and regular smoking among a cohort of grade 12 students in Prince Edward Island, Canada, between 1999 and 2001.
Data from the Tobacco Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) collected from 3,965 grade 12 students in 10 high schools were examined using multi-level regression analysis.
Attending a school with smoking prevention programming was associated with a decreased risk of being an occasional smoker (OR 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.97). School-based policies banning smoking on school property were associated with a small increased risk of occasional smoking (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68) among some students. The combination of both policies and programs was not associated with either occasional or regular smoking.
This preliminary evidence suggests that tailored school-based prevention programming may be effective at reducing smoking uptake; however, school smoking policies and the combination of programs and policies were relatively ineffective. These findings suggest that a new approach to school-based tobacco use prevention may be required.
To examine lifestyle and clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MBO) and compare their significance between levels of self-rated health among middle-aged men.
A cross-sectional baseline study.
273 men, aged 40, living in Helsinki, Finland.
Postal questionnaires and health examinations by public health nurses were used in data collection. Statistical differences between groups of self-rated health and risk factors were analyzed by chi-square tests.
Of all the respondents, 55% rated their health as good and 45% as average. Two thirds were overweight or obese, and 35% had waist-hip ratio more than 100 cm. Approximately 43% had diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg. Over half of the men smoked daily, and 28% used alcohol excessively.
The men in this sample were found to be at high risk of developing MBO. The results underscore the importance of understanding the contradiction that exists between subjective and objective health ratings. Public health nurses are in a key position to educate men on how to use simple measurements to objectively assess their risk factors and, thus, potentially reduce their risk of developing diabetes, heart attack, or stroke.