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The geospatial relation between UV solar radiation and type 1 diabetes in Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152451
Source
Acta Diabetol. 2010 Mar;47(1):73-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Scott Sloka
Marie Grant
Leigh Anne Newhook
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 108 Moss Heather Dr, St John's, NL, A1B 4S1, Canada. p97jss@mun.ca
Source
Acta Diabetol. 2010 Mar;47(1):73-8
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Demography
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology
Ecosystem
Geography
Humans
Incidence
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Population Density
Satellite Communications
Sunlight
Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has been previously associated with northern latitude and vitamin D insufficiency. This study investigates the geospatial association between average daily ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance and T1DM across the province of Newfoundland (NL), Canada. NL has one of the highest documented incidences of T1DM worldwide. A complete list of patients diagnosed (1987-2005) with T1DM in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) was constructed using multiple sources. All places of habitation at diagnosis were ascertained. Ecological analysis using Bayesian estimation was performed employing both NASA UVB data and latitude. Correlation of T1DM to both UVB irradiation and latitude was measured. A statistically significant correlation of erythemal UVB irradiance was observed (-0.0284: 95% CI -0.0542 to -0.0096). A more significant correlation of T1DM was observed with erythemal UVB irradiance than with latitude. This study suggests that erythemal UVB radiation may be geospatially associated with the incidence of T1DM in NL.
PubMed ID
19238314 View in PubMed
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High incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180911
Source
Diabetes Care. 2004 Apr;27(4):885-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Leigh A Newhook
Joseph Curtis
Donna Hagerty
Marie Grant
Andrew D Paterson
Cheryl Crummel
Tracey Bridger
Patrick Parfrey
Author Affiliation
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Medicine, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. lnewhook@mun.ca
Source
Diabetes Care. 2004 Apr;27(4):885-8
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Linear Models
Male
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of type 1 diabetes among children aged 0-14 years in the Avalon Peninsula in the Canadian Province of Newfoundland.
This was a prospective cohort study of the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from 1987 to 2002 on the Avalon Peninsula. Identified case subjects during this time period were ascertained from several sources and verified using the capture-recapture technique. Data were obtained from the only pediatric diabetes treatment center for children living on the Avalon Peninsula.
Over the study period, 294 children aged 0-14 years from the Avalon Peninsula were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in this population over the period 1987-2002 inclusive was 35.93 with a 95% CI of 31.82-40.03. The incidence over this period increased linearly at the rate of 1.25 per 100,000 individuals per year.
The Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland has one of the highest incidences of type 1 diabetes reported worldwide. The incidence increased over the 16-year study period.
PubMed ID
15047643 View in PubMed
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Time series analysis of ultraviolet B radiation and type 1 diabetes in Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159139
Source
Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Apr;9(2):81-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Scott Sloka
Marie Grant
Leigh Anne Newhook
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Neurology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada. p97jss@mun.ca
Source
Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Apr;9(2):81-6
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age of Onset
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been previously been associated with decreased levels of vitamin D. This study investigates the temporal association between average daily ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance and T1DM in Newfoundland.
A complete list of patients diagnosed with T1DM in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador was constructed using multiple sources. Pooled and unpooled monthly incidence data along with monthly UVB measurements were used to build a time series transfer function model. The model was used to predict the future incidence of T1DM based on previous monthly trends, and these predictions were compared with actual measured incidences.
A seasonal variation in pooled monthly incidence was observed. The transfer function model was able to reasonably predict the future incidence of T1DM based on previous observations and monthly UVB measurements. Tests of seasonality demonstrated a significant seasonal trend (p = 0.0003).
This study suggests that erythemal UVB radiation may be temporally associated with the incidence of T1DM.
PubMed ID
18221425 View in PubMed
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Vitamin D insufficiency common in newborns, children and pregnant women living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152022
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2009 Apr;5(2):186-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Leigh A Newhook
Scott Sloka
Marie Grant
Edward Randell
Christopher S Kovacs
Laurie K Twells
Author Affiliation
Memorial University, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada. lnewhook@mun.ca
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2009 Apr;5(2):186-91
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Calcifediol - blood - deficiency
Child
Child, Preschool
Climate
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Life Style
Male
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Pregnancy
Seasons
Vitamin D Deficiency - epidemiology
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with poor bone health, colorectal cancer, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Two national health-related societies in Canada have made recommendations for vitamin D supplementation, yet little research has been reported on the vitamin D status of Canadians. Lifestyle changes, such as sunscreen use, spending less time outdoors and insufficient intake of vitamin D-containing foods as well as northern latitude, may be affecting human vitamin D status. A cross-sectional analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] was conducted in pregnant women, newborns (umbilical cord blood) and children. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Published ranges for 25-(OH)D were used to determine vitamin D status. The prevalence of 25-(OH)D deficiency for the three groups studied revealed most concentrations in the 25-(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency ranges. There were significant differences in all groups studied between seasons, with the exception of maternal blood and female cord blood samples. 25-(OH)D insufficiency was common in all groups for winter and summer, more so in winter. 25-(OH)D insufficiency was common in the three groups studied. The Newfoundland and Labrador population may be at increased risk for vitamin D insufficiency because of factors such as northern latitude and lifestyle issues. Further research on the vitamin D status of this population is important, considering the potential adverse health-related outcomes and the recommendations on supplementation being made.
PubMed ID
19292753 View in PubMed
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