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The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121409
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013 Jan-Feb;23(1):46-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
Marianne Hatzopoulou
Scott Weichenthal
Hussam Dugum
Graeme Pickett
Luis Miranda-Moreno
Ryan Kulka
Ross Andersen
Mark Goldberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013 Jan-Feb;23(1):46-51
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution
Bicycling
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Motor Vehicles
Quebec
Vehicle Emissions
Abstract
Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.
PubMed ID
22910003 View in PubMed
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A web-based route planning tool to reduce cyclists' exposures to traffic pollution: a case study in Montreal, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114940
Source
Environ Res. 2013 May;123:58-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Marianne Hatzopoulou
Scott Weichenthal
Guillaume Barreau
Mark Goldberg
William Farrell
Dan Crouse
Nancy Ross
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Department of Civil Engineering, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2013 May;123:58-61
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - analysis
Algorithms
Bicycling
Child
Child, Preschool
Cities
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Internet
Male
Maps as Topic
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Quebec
Vehicle Emissions
Young Adult
Abstract
We developed a web-based route planning tool for cyclists in Montreal, Canada, using spatial monitoring data for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2). With this tool, we estimated exposures to NO2 along shortest routes and lower exposure alternatives using origin-destination survey data. On average, exposures were estimated to be lower by 0.76 ppb (95% CI: 0.72, 0.80) relative to the shortest route, with decreases of up to 6.1 ppb for a single trip. Cumulative exposure levels (ppb km) decreased by approximately 4%. In general, the benefits of decreased exposure could be achieved with little increase (less than 1 km) in the overall route length.
PubMed ID
23562391 View in PubMed
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