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Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118430
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:101
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Maria Wennberg
Andreas Tornevi
Ingegerd Johansson
Agneta Hörnell
Margareta Norberg
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå 901 87, Sweden. maria.wennberg@envmed.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:101
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Animals
Chickens
Diet
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fishes
Fruit
Health Behavior
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Vegetables
Abstract
Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden.
Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30-60 years) was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden). Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs) were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories.
Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30), as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking) and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine.
Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23210480 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction; a prospective population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286526
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Apr 04;16(1):21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-04-2017
Author
Stina Bodén
Maria Wennberg
Bethany Van Guelpen
Ingegerd Johansson
Bernt Lindahl
Jonas Andersson
Nitin Shivappa
James R Hebert
Lena Maria Nilsson
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Apr 04;16(1):21
Date
Apr-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomarkers - blood
Body mass index
C-Reactive Protein - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Inflammation - blood - epidemiology
Interleukin-6 - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - blood - epidemiology
Nutrition Assessment
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up.
We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n?=?605) of the study population.
Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1?=?1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend?=?0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1?=?1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend?=?0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0.03-0.14) and 6% higher IL-6 (95% CI 0.02-0.11) in 605 controls with biomarker data available.
A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an elevated risk of first myocardial infarction in men; whereas for women the relationship was null. Consideration of the inflammatory impact of diet could improve prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28376792 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of relative intake of fatty acids according to the Northern Sweden FFQ with fatty acid levels in erythrocyte membranes as biomarkers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153155
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1477-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Maria Wennberg
Bengt Vessby
Ingegerd Johansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden. maria.wennberg@envmed.umu.se
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1477-84
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Biological Markers - blood
Cohort Studies
Diet Surveys
Erythrocyte Membrane - chemistry
Fatty Acids - administration & dosage - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Milk - chemistry
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Seafood - analysis
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden
Abstract
To evaluate the validity of the Northern Sweden eighty-four-item FFQ to estimate intake of fatty acids relative to 24 h diet recalls (24-HDR) and fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes.
Participants, randomly recruited from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Project, answered the eighty-four-item FFQ. During the following year each participant carried out ten 24-HDR. Intake of fatty acids measured by the FFQ was compared with intake by the 24-HDR and fatty acid levels in erythrocytes.
The county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden.
Ninety-six men and ninety-nine women.
Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) between intakes of the fatty acids 14 : 0, 15 : 0, 16 : 0, 17 : 0, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 estimated by the FFQ and the 24-HDR were all significant and ranged from 0.29 (22 : 6n-3 in men and women) to 0.60 (16 : 0 in men), whereas significant correlations between FFQ-estimated intake and erythrocyte membrane content were only seen for milk fatty acids 14 : 0, 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 (rs = 0.23-0.34) and fish fatty acids 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 (rs = 0.42-0.51).
The Northern Sweden eighty-four-item FFQ gives a satisfactory estimate of the intake of fish fatty acids (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) and milk fatty acids (15 : 0 and 17 : 0), whereas its validity for fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, derived mainly from vegetable oils, cannot be shown.
PubMed ID
19144238 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135171
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:33
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Karin S Engström
Maria Wennberg
Ulf Strömberg
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Göran Hallmans
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Thomas Lundh
Margareta Norberg
Gerda Rentschler
Bengt Vessby
Staffan Skerfving
Karin Broberg
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:33
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Cardiotonic Agents - blood - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Docosahexaenoic Acids - blood - metabolism
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - blood - metabolism
Erythrocytes - chemistry
Female
Fishes
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase - genetics - metabolism
Glutathione - metabolism
Glutathione S-Transferase pi - genetics - metabolism
Humans
Male
Mercury - blood
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - metabolism - toxicity
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - chemically induced - enzymology - genetics - metabolism
Odds Ratio
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prospective Studies
Risk
Sweden
Abstract
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction.
Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM) or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1) genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls). The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury) and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration.
There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury were divided into tertiles, individuals with GCLM-588 TT genotype displayed a lower risk relative to the CC genotype in all but one tertile; in most tertiles the odds ratio was around 0.5 for TT. However, there were few TT carriers and the results were not statistically significant. The results were similar when taking plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid, erythrocyte-selenium and erythrocyte-mercury into account simultaneously.
No statistically significant genetic modifying effects were seen for the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction. Still, our results indicate that the relatively rare GCLM-588 TT genotype may have an impact, but a larger study is necessary for confirmation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21504558 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fish consumption and ischemic stroke in southern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130606
Source
Nutr J. 2011;10:109
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Anna Oudin
Maria Wennberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. anna.oudin@envmed.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2011;10:109
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Case-Control Studies
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fishes
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Retrospective Studies
Seafood
Sex Factors
Stroke - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The relationship between fish intake and stroke incidence has been inconsistent in previous Swedish studies. Here, we report the risk of stroke and fish intake in a cohort from southern Sweden.
Data were obtained from an already available population based case-control study where the cases were defined as incident first-time ischemic stroke patients. Complete data on all relevant variables were obtained for 2722 controls and 2469 cases. The data were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Stroke risk decreased with fat fish intake ([greater than or equal to] 1/week versus
Notes
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PubMed ID
21985324 View in PubMed
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Fish consumption and myocardial infarction: a second prospective biomarker study from northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139561
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):27-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
Maria Wennberg
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Göran Hallmans
Margareta Norberg
Thomas Lundh
Staffan Skerfving
Ulf Strömberg
Bengt Vessby
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden. maria.wennberg@envmed.umu.se
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):27-36
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Biological Markers
Case-Control Studies
Death, Sudden, Cardiac - etiology
Diet
Erythrocytes - chemistry
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - blood
Female
Fishes
Humans
Male
Mercury - blood
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
Selenium - blood
Sweden
Abstract
A beneficial role of fish consumption on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported and is mostly ascribed to n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which may increase the risk of MI.
The objective was to determine how fish consumption and erythrocyte concentrations of mercury (Ery-Hg) and selenium (Ery-Se) are related to the risk of MI and whether n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) in plasma phospholipids (P-EPA+DHA) are protective.
This was a case-control study nested within the northern Sweden cohort, in which data and samples were collected prospectively. The study included 431 cases with an MI after data and sample collection, including 81 sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) and 499 matched controls. Another 69 female cases with controls from a breast cancer screening registry were included in sex-specific analyses.
Odds ratios for the third compared with the first tertile were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91) for Ery-Hg, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.06) for Ery-Se, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.11) for P-EPA+DHA. Ery-Hg and P-EPA+DHA were intercorrelated (Spearman's R = 0.34). No association was seen for reported fish consumption. Multivariate modeling did not change these associations significantly. Sex-specific analyses showed no differences in risk associations. High concentrations of Ery-Se were associated with an increased risk of SCD.
The biomarker results indicate a protective effect of fish consumption. No harmful effect of mercury was indicated in this low-exposed population in whom Ery-Hg and P-EPA+DHA were intercorrelated.
PubMed ID
21048056 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fish consumption and risk of stroke: a second prospective case-control study from northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286318
Source
Nutr J. 2016 Nov 16;15(1):98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-16-2016
Author
Maria Wennberg
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Margareta Norberg
Staffan Skerfving
Ulf Strömberg
Per-Gunnar Wiklund
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Source
Nutr J. 2016 Nov 16;15(1):98
Date
Nov-16-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Female
Fishes
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Seafood
Sex Factors
Stroke - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Fish consumption has been concluded to be associated with decreased risk of stroke in several reviews. However, among men, but not women, an increased risk of stroke was previously found at high fish consumption (>3 meals/week) in northern Sweden. This study investigates if previous results on elevated stroke risk with high fish consumption in men in northern Sweden can be confirmed in a larger study with new cases in the same population.
A prospective nested case-control study was performed within the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study cohort. Information on fish consumption, other lifestyle and medical data was collected at baseline. Incident stroke cases (1987-2007, n?=?735) were identified and 2698 controls matched for gender, age, year of baseline and geographical region.
There were no associations between total fish or fatty fish consumption and stroke risk; thus the previous finding of increased risk of stroke with high fish consumption in men could not be repeated. High intake of lean fish (>twice/week compared to?
Notes
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PubMed ID
27852254 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fish intake, mercury, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of stroke in northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163268
Source
Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov;98(5):1038-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2007
Author
Maria Wennberg
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Birgitta Stegmayr
Göran Hallmans
Thomas Lundh
Staffan Skerfving
Ulf Strömberg
Bengt Vessby
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Sweden. maria.wennberg@envmed.umu.se
Source
Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov;98(5):1038-45
Date
Nov-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Docosahexaenoic Acids - administration & dosage - blood
Eicosapentaenoic Acid - administration & dosage - blood
Epidemiologic Methods
Erythrocyte Membrane - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fishes
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Mercury - administration & dosage - toxicity
Middle Aged
Seafood - adverse effects
Sex Factors
Stroke - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Results of previous studies on fish intake and stroke risk have been inconclusive. Different stroke types have often not been separated. Our aim was to elucidate whether intake of fish, Hg or the sum of proportions of fatty acids EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) influence the risk of haemorrhagic or ischaemic stroke. Within a population-based cohort from a community intervention programme, 369 stroke cases and 738 matched controls were identified and included in the present nested case-control study. Information on fish intake had been recorded at recruitment, i.e. before diagnosis. Hg levels were determined in erythrocyte membranes, also collected at recruitment, and the relative content of fatty acids was measured in erythrocyte membranes or plasma phospholipids. The results showed that in women there was a non-significant decrease in stroke risk with increasing fish intake (OR 0.90 (95 % CI 0.73, 1.11) per meal per week). The risk in women differed significantly (P = 0.03) from that in men, in whom the OR for stroke rose with increasing fish intake (OR 1.24 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.51) per meal per week). The corresponding risk in men for Hg was 0.99 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.06), and for the sum of proportions of EPA and DHA 1.08 (95 % CI 0.92, 1.28). We conclude that the relationship between stroke risk and fish intake seems to be different in men and women. Increased levels of EPA and DHA do not decrease the risk for stroke and there is no association between stroke risk and Hg at these low levels.
PubMed ID
17537290 View in PubMed
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Greater decreases in cholesterol levels among individuals with high cardiovascular risk than among the general population: the northern Sweden MONICA study 1994 to 2014.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291231
Source
Eur Heart J. 2016 07 01; 37(25):1985-92
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-01-2016
Author
Marie Eriksson
Ann-Sofi Forslund
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Stefan Söderberg
Maria Wennberg
Mats Eliasson
Author Affiliation
Statistics, USBE, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Eur Heart J. 2016 07 01; 37(25):1985-92
Date
07-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular System
Cholesterol
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
Decreasing cholesterol levels in Western populations is the main reason for decreasing mortality due to coronary heart disease. Our aim was to analyze trends in cholesterol levels in the population during a period of 20 years in relation to previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), other cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status.
A total of 4546 women and 4349 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 6.2 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, CI, 6.1-6.2) in 1994 to 5.5 mmol/L (CI 5.4-5.5) in 2014. The decrease was more pronounced in elderly vs. younger participants (1.0 vs. 0.5 mmol/L). In 2014, participants with previous CVD, diabetes, or hypertension had lower cholesterol levels than the general population, whereas their levels were higher or similar to the general population in 1994. The use of lipid-lowering drugs increased markedly and was used by 14.3% in 2014. Previously described differences in cholesterol levels between participants with obesity and normal weight, and between those with and without university education, diminished, or vanished over time.
Cholesterol levels decreased by 0.7 mmol/L over 20 years with no sign of abating. The improvement occurred in all age and gender groups but more prominently among those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26941200 View in PubMed
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Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285601
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;31(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Guri Skeie
Tonje Braaten
Anja Olsen
Cecilie Kyrø
Anne Tjønneland
Rikard Landberg
Lena Maria Nilsson
Maria Wennberg
Kim Overvad
Lene Angell Åsli
Elisabete Weiderpass
Eiliv Lund
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;31(4):405-14
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden
Whole Grains
Abstract
Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer.
PubMed ID
26092139 View in PubMed
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