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Abscess infections and malnutrition--a cross-sectional study of polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262831
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2014 Jun;74(4):322-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Mone Saeland
Margareta Wandel
Thomas Böhmer
Margaretha Haugen
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2014 Jun;74(4):322-8
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abscess - epidemiology
Adolescent
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug users
Female
Fruit
Humans
Hyperhomocysteinemia - epidemiology
Male
Malnutrition - complications - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology - etiology
Thinness
Vegetables
Vitamins - pharmacology
Young Adult
Abstract
Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition.
To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections.
A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation.
Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 ?mol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low.
The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.
PubMed ID
24628456 View in PubMed
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Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256846
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Anne von Ruesten
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Kirsten Mehlig
Anna Winkvist
Lauren Lissner
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:75
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Weight
Diet Surveys
Diet, Reducing - psychology
Female
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Postpartum Period - psychology
Pregnancy
Weight Gain
Young Adult
Abstract
Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth.
This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. =?5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression.
In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG.
Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24456804 View in PubMed
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Association between maternal iron supplementation during pregnancy and risk of celiac disease in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258027
Source
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Apr;12(4):624-31.e1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Ketil Størdal
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Knut E A Lundin
Lars C Stene
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway. Electronic address: ketil.stordal@fhi.no.
Source
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Apr;12(4):624-31.e1-2
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anemia - prevention & control
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects - methods
Female
Humans
Iron - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - prevention & control
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Abstract
The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of iron supplements during pregnancy affects the risk for celiac disease in children.
We assessed data from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study, in which individuals with celiac disease were identified by answers on questionnaires and linkage to the Norwegian Patient Register. Complete data were available for 78,846 children (mean age 5.9 years, range 2-12 years); 314 children were identified with celiac disease. Questionnaires were given to pregnant women to collect information on use of iron-containing supplements, diet, anemia, and levels of hemoglobin.
Celiac disease was diagnosed in 4.65 of 1000 children whose mothers took iron supplements while they were pregnant, compared with 3.15 of 1000 children whose mothers did not. After adjusting for children's age, sex, and age of gluten introduction, and the presence of celiac disease in mothers, iron supplementation during pregnancy remained significantly associated with celiac disease in children (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.68; P = .019). However, celiac disease was not associated with the mothers' intake of iron from foods (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03). Anemia before or during the early stages of pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of celiac disease in children (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.84-2.00; P = .24). The use of iron supplements during pregnancy remained significantly associated with celiac disease in children after adjusting for children who were given iron supplements before 18 months of age, which itself was associated with celiac disease.
In a prospective Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study, we found an increased risk of celiac disease in children whose mothers used iron supplements during pregnancy; this association does not appear to arise from maternal anemia.
Notes
Comment In: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Apr;12(4):632-524211288
PubMed ID
24112997 View in PubMed
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Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116379
Source
JAMA. 2013 Feb 13;309(6):570-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-13-2013
Author
Pål Surén
Christine Roth
Michaeline Bresnahan
Margaretha Haugen
Mady Hornig
Deborah Hirtz
Kari Kveim Lie
W Ian Lipkin
Per Magnus
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Synnve Schjølberg
George Davey Smith
Anne-Siri Øyen
Ezra Susser
Camilla Stoltenberg
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. pal.suren@fhi.no
Source
JAMA. 2013 Feb 13;309(6):570-7
Date
Feb-13-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - prevention & control
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dietary Supplements
Female
Folic Acid - therapeutic use
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Prenatal Care
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Regression Analysis
Risk
Vitamin B Complex - therapeutic use
Young Adult
Abstract
Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders.
To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS]) in children.
The study sample of 85,176 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002-2008; by the end of follow-up on March 31, 2012, the age range was 3.3 through 10.2 years (mean, 6.4 years). The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy, defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity.
Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of ASDs.
At the end of follow-up, 270 children in the study sample had been diagnosed with ASDs: 114 with autistic disorder, 56 with Asperger syndrome, and 100 with PDD-NOS. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41-0.90). No association was found with Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS, but power was limited. Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use.
Use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception was associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they do support prenatal folic acid supplementation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23403681 View in PubMed
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Associations of adherence to the New Nordic Diet with risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259601
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Oct;29(10):753-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Elisabet Rudjord Hillesund
Nina C Øverby
Stephanie M Engel
Kari Klungsøyr
Quaker E Harmon
Margaretha Haugen
Elling Bere
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Oct;29(10):753-65
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Mothers
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Pre-Eclampsia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - epidemiology - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999-2008. A previously constructed diet score assessing meal frequency, and the consumption of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water, was used to assess NND adherence. Associations between NND adherence and the outcomes were estimated in adjusted multivariate logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 72,072 women was included in the study. High versus low NND adherence was associated with lower risk of total preeclampsia (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.78-0.95) and early preeclampsia (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52-0.96). High compared with low NND adherence was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women (OR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), whereas multiparous women with high NND adherence had a marginally significant higher risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.00-1.53). High NND adherence was associated with a lower relative risk of preeclampsia and of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women; however, among multiparous women there was a higher relative risk of preterm delivery.
PubMed ID
25193741 View in PubMed
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Associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcome and postpartum weight retention: a prospective observational cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260815
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:201
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Anna Winkvist
Lauren Lissner
Jan Alexander
Bente Oftedal
Per Magnus
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:201
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Body mass index
Cesarean Section - statistics & numerical data
Emergencies
Female
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Institute of Medicine (U.S.)
Live Birth - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Parity
Pre-Eclampsia - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Thinness - epidemiology
United States
Weight Gain
Young Adult
Abstract
Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with pregnancy complications, and Norwegian Health Authorities have adopted the GWG recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (IOM). The aim of this study was to evaluate if a GWG outside the IOM recommendation in a Norwegian population is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications like hypertension, low and high birth weight, preeclampsia, emergency caesarean delivery, and maternal post-partum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 and 18 months.
This study was performed in 56 101 pregnant women included in the prospective national Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) in the years 1999 to 2008. Women who delivered a singleton live born child during gestational week 37 to 42 were included. Maternal prepregnant and postpartum weight was collected from questionnaires at 17th week of gestation and 6 and 18 months postpartum.
A weight gain less than the IOM recommendations (GWG??IOM rec.) significantly increased the risk of pregnancy hypertension, a high birth weight baby, preeclampsia and emergency cesarean delivery in both nulliparous and parous normal weight women. Similar results were found for overweight women except for no increased risk for gestational hypertension in parous women with GWG?>?IOM rec. Seventy-four percent of the overweight nulliparous women and 66% of the obese women had a GWG?>?IOM rec. A GWG?>?IOM rec. resulted in increased risk of PPWR?>?2 kg in all weight classes, but most women attained their prepregnant weight class by 18 months post-partum.
For prepregnant normal weight and overweight women a GWG?>?IOM rec. increased the risk for unfavorable birth outcomes in both nulliparous and parous women. A GWG?>?IOM rec. increased the risk of a PPWR?>?2 kg at 18 months in all weight classes. This large study supports the Norwegian Health authorities' recommendations for normal weight and overweight women to comply with the IOM rec.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24917037 View in PubMed
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Breast-feeding and Infant Hospitalization for Infections: Large Cohort and Sibling Analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291144
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Aug; 65(2):225-231
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Ketil Størdal
Karen M Lundeby
Anne L Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Britt Nakstad
Nicolai A Lund-Blix
Lars C Stene
Author Affiliation
*Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo †Paediatric Department, Ostfold Hospital Trust, Grålum ‡Oslo University Hospital, Children's Center, Oslo §Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Nordbyhagen
Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Aug; 65(2):225-231
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Otitis Media - epidemiology - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
Protective factors
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Siblings
Time Factors
Abstract
Breast-feeding may protect against infections, but its optimal duration remains controversial. We aimed to study the association of the duration of full and any breast-feeding with infections the first 18 months of life.
The Norwegian Mother and Child study (MoBa) is a prospective birth cohort which recruited expecting mothers giving birth from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed data from the full cohort (n?=?70,511) and sibling sets (n?=?21,220) with parental report of breast-feeding and infections. The main outcome measures were the relative risks (RRs) for hospitalization for infections from 0 to 18 months by age at introduction of complementary foods and duration of any breast-feeding.
Although we found some evidence for an overall association between longer duration of full breast-feeding and lower risk of hospitalizations for infections, 7.3% of breast-fed children who received complementary foods at 4 to 6 months of age compared to 7.7% of those receiving complementary foods after 6 months were hospitalized (adjusted RR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.03). Higher risk of hospitalization was observed in those breast-fed 6 months or less (10.0%) compared to =12 months (7.6%, adjusted RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.31), but with similar risks for 6 to 11 months versus =12 months. Matched sibling analyses, minimizing the confounding from shared maternal factors, showed nonsignificant associations and were generally weaker compared with the cohort analyses.
Our results support the recommendation to fully breast-feed for 4 months and to continue breast-feeding beyond 6 months, and suggest that protection against infections is limited to the first 12 months.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28737571 View in PubMed
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Breast-feeding in relation to weight retention up to 36 months postpartum in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study: modification by socio-economic status?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259545
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jul;17(7):1514-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Martin Brandhagen
Lauren Lissner
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Anna-Pia Häggkvist
Margaretha Haugen
Anna Winkvist
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jul;17(7):1514-23
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Breast Feeding
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Income
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Mothers
Norway
Obesity - prevention & control
Postpartum Period
Poverty
Pregnancy
Social Class
Weight Gain
Abstract
We investigated the association between full breast-feeding up to 6 months as well as partial breast-feeding after 6 months and maternal weight retention at 6, 18 and 36 months after delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Cohort study. Information on exposure and outcome was collected by questionnaire.
Norway.
Women at 6 months (n 49 676), 18 months (n 27 187) and 36 months (n 17 343) postpartum.
Longer duration of full breast-feeding as well as partial breast-feeding was significantly related to lower weight retention at 6 months. At 18 months full breast-feeding (0-6 months) and partial breast-feeding for 12-18 months were significantly related to lower weight retention. At 36 months only full breast-feeding (0-6 months) was significantly related to lower weight retention. For each additional month of full breast-feeding, maternal weight was lowered by 0·50 kg/month at 6 months, 0·10 kg/month at 18 months and 0·14 kg/month at 36 months (adjusted for pre-pregnant BMI, pregnancy weight gain, age and parity). Partial breast-feeding resulted in 0·25 kg/month lower maternal weight at 6 months. Interactions were found between household income and full breast-feeding in relation to weight retention at 6, 18 and 36 months, indicating most benefit among women with low income.
The present study supports the hypothesis that full breast-feeding contributes to lower postpartum weight retention and shows that the effect is maintained for as long as 3 years postpartum.
PubMed ID
23915637 View in PubMed
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Breastfeeding practice in mothers with eating disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100322
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Jul 1;6(3):243-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2010
Author
Leila Torgersen
Eivind Ystrom
Margaretha Haugen
Helle M Meltzer
Ann Von Holle
Cecilie Knoph Berg
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Cynthia M Bulik
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway. leila.torgersen@fhi.no
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Jul 1;6(3):243-52
Date
Jul-1-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - epidemiology - psychology
Body mass index
Breast Feeding - epidemiology - psychology
Bulimia Nervosa - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Eating Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Feeding Behavior - psychology
Female
Food Habits - psychology
Humans
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of breastfeeding in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified - purging subtype, with mothers with no eating disorders during the first 6 months after birth. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Questionnaire-based information on eating disorder diagnoses and breastfeeding in 39?355 women was used to estimate the risk of cessation of breastfeeding with Cox proportional hazards regression. Almost all women (98%) initially breastfeed their infants, with no statistically significant difference between the eating disorders subgroups and women with no eating disorders. However, the risk of early cessation before 6 months post-partum increased for all subgroups of mothers with eating disorders, compared with mothers with no eating disorders. After adjusting for maternal body mass index, age, education, birthweight and pre-term birth, only mothers with anorexia nervosa [hazard ratios (HR), 2.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.53] and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype (HR, 1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.53) had increased risk for cessation of breastfeeding There were no differences in the risk of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. These results show that some eating disorders may influence mothers' early feeding practices and indicate that additional support may be necessary to assist women with anorexia nervosa in maintaining breastfeeding.
PubMed ID
20929496 View in PubMed
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Changes and tracking of fruit, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages intake from 18 months to 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265498
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:793
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Mona Bjelland
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Wenche Nystad
Lene Frost Andersen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:793
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Beverages
Child
Child Health Services
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage
Educational Status
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Health Behavior
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Mother-Child Relations
Norway - epidemiology
Pediatric Obesity - prevention & control
Public Health
Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
A few studies have investigated tracking of dietary patterns or nutrient intake in pre-school children, but no studies have been identified examining tracking of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetable intakes in early childhood (1-7 year olds). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes and tracking of intakes of fruit, vegetables and SSB, and association between maternal education and dietary tracking, from 18 months to 7 years of age.
Longitudinal data from the nation-wide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used, including 9025 children participating at three time points (18 months, 36 months and 7 years). Frequencies of fruit, vegetables and SSB were assessed by questionnaire. Slightly different questions were used at each time point to collect information about intake. Maternal education was categorized into =?12 years, 13-16 years, =?17 years. Cross-tabulation, Spearman's rho and multinomial logistic regression were used for assessing change, tracking and differences by maternal education.
Analyses by gender indicated largest changes for intake of fruit and SSB from age 18 months to 7 years. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients (Spearman's rho = 0.23-0.46) for intake of fruit, vegetables and SSB were found and children assigned to low, medium and high frequency of consumption at 18 months continued to be in the same group at age 36 months and 7 years. Children of mothers with low education consumed fruit and vegetables less often and SSB more often compared to children of mothers with high education at 18 months of age. Children with higher educated mothers had lower odds for increasing fruit intake or decreasing SSB intake, compared to children with lower educated mothers showing a stable intake.
The tracking coefficients for intakes were fair to moderate and differences in intakes according to maternal education were found already at age 18 months. This suggests that promotion of healthy dietary behaviours at an early age is important to prevent unfavourable dietary behaviours later in childhood. Moreover, it seems important to target mothers in nutrition interventions for improving dietary habits among children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24103398 View in PubMed
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