Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition.
To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections.
A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation.
Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 ?mol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low.
The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.
South Asians are prone to diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases, which can be prevented by a diet leading to weight reduction. Body size perceptions may influence compliance to dietary advice. The objective was to study body size perceptions among Pakistani immigrant women in Norway, enrolled in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance by focussing on diet and physical activity. Participants (n=198) were 25-62 years of age, 79.8% had BMI > 25 and mean BMI was 29.6. Data were collected by questionnaire interviews with Punjabi/Urdu speaking interviewers, and body weight and height were measured. This article is based on baseline data. Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale was used. The scale consists of nine figures, representing women with different body shapes, from very thin (1-2) to very obese (6-9). The women were asked which body size they thought would connote health and wealth. A significantly smaller body size was related to health (mean 2.9) than to wealth (mean 3.3), p
Young men tend to have a low intake of vegetables and fruit. Unfortunately, this group is difficult to reach with health information. Furthermore, knowledge about weight perceptions and the relationship to food behaviour among young men is scant. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between BMI, health and weight perceptions and food intake patterns among young men in the military.
Data were collected with a 4-day food diary among 578 male recruits (age 18-26, mean 19.7) in the Norwegian National Guard (response rate 78%), in addition to a questionnaire, including questions about health and weight perceptions, and food frequency when still living at home. Weight and height were objectively measured. Food patterns were explored with principal component analysis, based on the diary data. A multivariate linear regression analysis determined the association between BMI and food patterns, and attitudes to health and slenderness, adjusting for smoking, physical activity and phase of data collection.
Twenty eight percent of the recruits were overweight/obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)). Two-thirds meant that it is important for them to be slender, and these recruits reported more of both light (p = 0.025) and hard (p = 0.016) physical activity than the others. It was a positive association between the recruits' food frequency at home, and the amount of intake in the military camp for several food items. A principal component analysis identified three distinct food patterns, loading on 1) plant foods, 2) fast food/soft drinks, 3) milk/cereals. Those who stated that it is important for them to be slender, or to have good health, did not have significantly different food intake patterns than the others. BMI was inversely related to scores on the plant food pattern, and positive attitudes to slenderness.
The majority of the recruits find it important to be slender. This orientation had a bearing on their physical activity pattern, but less on the food intake pattern. The data also indicate that subjects with high intakes of plant foods were less likely to have a high BMI than others. It is important to raise awareness of healthy eating in young men.
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Data from previous studies indicate a short duration of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding, among infants of immigrant mothers living in Norway and other Western countries. Norway has a long tradition of supporting breastfeeding.
To explore infant feeding practices among Somali-born mothers in Norway, and the ways in which they navigate among different information sources.
Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus groups were carried out with mothers of children 6, 12 and 24 months of age. Women were recruited by a multi-recruitment strategy. Twenty-one mothers participated in interviews and twenty-two in five focus groups. The analysis was guided by Grounded Theory.
The mothers had positive attitudes to breastfeeding, but were unfamiliar with the concept of exclusive breastfeeding. Early introduction of water and infant formula was a common practice that interfered with exclusive breastfeeding. The mothers experienced challenges of dealing with conflicting recommendations and expectations regarding infant feeding. They navigated among different sources of information, taking into consideration traditional values, experiences and habits from living in Norway, and research-based knowledge. Their prioritization of the different information sources varied with different life situations, children's age, and the extent to which the mothers trusted the information sources.
Despite the strong focus on breastfeeding in Norway, Somali-born mothers encounter obstacles in their breastfeeding practices. These may be due to lack of information about exclusive breastfeeding and to the conflicting information they received. Breastfeeding practices may be enhanced by promoting culturally sensitive communication, and relations of trust at health-care centers.
OBJECTIVE: South Asians are generally known to have high prevalence of diabetes type 2 and coronary heart diseases. The Pakistani immigrant group in Norway constitute a high-risk subgroup of the population that needs a selective prevention approach. The main objective of this study was to provide information on dietary change and factors leading to these changes in Pakistani women after migration from Punjab, Pakistan to Oslo, Norway. Such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counselling. DESIGN: Twenty-five Pakistani immigrant women, recruited through the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001, participated in focus group interviews. Each group met four times, aided by a moderator and professional interpreters. A model developed by Koctürk was tested for its usefulness in analysing the dietary changes. PRECEDE was used to organise and structure the factors that were found to cause the changes. RESULTS: According to the women, life in Norway has led to several changes in meal pattern, meal composition and intake of different foods. In accordance with the Koctürk model, the cultural importance of breakfast and lunch has diminished, and dinner has become the most important meal. Meals on weekends tend to be more traditional than on working days. The study gives limited support to the hypothesis that changes occur predominantly among the accessory foods and least among staples. The focus group interviews revealed a rich variety of factors influencing dietary change: health aspects, children's preferences, work schedules, social relations, stress, traditional beliefs, climate, season and access of foods. CONCLUSION: To develop effective intervention strategies, it is vital to understand both how changes do occur and how different factors influence dietary habits. The Koctürk model was useful to structure the various foods and changes that may occur. Strategies for dietary counselling should not only include dietary advice but also focus on the multitude of factors causing dietary changes.
Elevated plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and an inverse association has been shown between the dietary intake of B-vitamins, B-vitamin profile and the concentration of p-tHcy.
The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of a dietary intervention focusing on an increased intake of vegetables, fruits and bread. The effect of the dietary intervention was determined by the changes in plasma concentrations of tHcy, cysteine (cys), riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B(12).
An intervention study with duration of 5 months, including 541 male recruits from the Norwegian National Guard, Vaernes and a control group, including 209 male recruits from the Norwegian Army, Heggelia.
The dietary intervention resulted in decreased concentration of p-tHcy (-10%, P = 0.002), p-cys (-6%, P
Snack consumption has been reported to increase over recent decades. Little is known about possible associations between snack composition and snack eating location. In the present study, we aimed to describe the contribution of snacks to dietary intake in Norwegian adults and to investigate whether the composition of snacks differed according to where they were eaten.
Dietary data were collected in 2010 and 2011 using two telephone administered 24 h recalls about four weeks apart. In total, 1787 participants aged 18-70 years completed two recalls. The recorded eating locations were at home, other private household, work/school, restaurant/cafe/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting.
Snacks contributed to 17% and 21% of the energy intake in men and women, respectively. Compared with main meals, snacks had a higher fiber density (g/MJ) and contained a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates, added sugars and alcohol, while the percentages of energy from fat and protein were lower. The top five energy-contributing food groups from snacks were cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages. Snacks were mostly eaten at home (58% of all snacks) or at work/school (23% of all snacks). Snacks consumed at work/school contained less energy, had a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates and had lower percentages of energy from added sugars, alcohol and fat than snacks consumed at home. Snacks consumed during visits to private households and at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets contained more energy, had a higher percentage of energy from fat and had a lower fiber density than snacks consumed at home.
We conclude that snacks are an important part of the diet and involve the consumption of both favorable and less favorable foods. Snacks eaten at home or at work/school were generally healthier than snacks consumed during visits to other private households or at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets. Nutritional educators should recommend healthy snack options and raise awareness of the association between eating location and snack composition.
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To study the association between dinner eating location and the nutritional quality of the specific dinner meal and the whole-day dietary intake and to compare the diets of those consuming =25% of energy out of home and at school/work (SOH; substantial out-of-home eaters) with those consuming
Nutritional information seldom reaches individuals with the most unhealthful dietary habits.
To explore whether an intervention focusing on a combination of nutritional information and increased availability of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread was effective to raise the intake, and knowledge, of these foods among recruits in the military with low as well as high baseline intake.
Intervention study, including 479 recruits, in intervention and control military camps. The participants were divided into three groups (low, medium, and high) according to their baseline intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread.
Those with low/medium baseline intake in the intervention camp had a significant increase in the intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread at follow-up. All three intake groups in the intervention camp also had significantly higher intake of these foods compared to those in the control camp at follow-up. The knowledge scores increased significantly among both high and low consumers in the intervention camp, but not in the control camp.
The intervention led to increased intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread among those recruits in the intervention camp, who were most in need to change their diet.
To explore socio-economic differences in use of staff canteens and whether frequent use of staff canteens is associated with different food patterns and obesity.
Cross-sectional study using three self-administered questionnaires, two of them including food frequency questions. Factor analysis was used to explore food patterns.
Oslo, Norway, 2000-2001.
In total 8943 adult, working Oslo citizens.
Frequent (=3 times/week) use of staff canteens was most likely among men, younger workers and those in the highest education and income groups. However, after adjustment for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, those with highest education were least likely to use staff canteens frequently. Frequent eating in staff canteens was positively associated with a Western food pattern (based on fat-rich food, fast food and red meat) and inversely associated with a traditional food pattern (based on boiled potatoes and gravy, and less rice, pasta and oil) in multivariate analyses. Unadjusted, frequent eating in staff canteens was also inversely associated with a prudent food pattern (based on fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes and oil). The likelihood of being obese (BMI = 30 kg/m2) increased significantly with frequent eating in staff canteens, also when adjusted for demographic and socio-economic variables. Adjustment for the food patterns attenuated this relationship, but it was still significant.
Frequent eating in staff canteens was negatively related to socio-economic position and positively associated with unhealthy dietary habits. This partly explained higher odds for obesity among frequent users of staff canteens. Future research should assess the availability and food options of staff canteens.